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Chapter 10

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
virulent describes a microorganism that causes disease and that is highly infectious; strictly, refers only to viruses that reproduce by the lytic cycle.
transformation the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
deoxyribose a five carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
nitrogenous base an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA.
purine a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general cat. of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA.
pyrimidine a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general cat. of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA.
base-pairing rules the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.
complementary base pair the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand.
base sequence the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
DNA replication the process of making a copy of DNA
helicase an enzyme that separates DNA strands.
replication fork a y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated.
DNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
semi-conservative replication in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new
mutation a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.
ribonucleic acid a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecules as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses he codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
protein synthesis the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA.
ribose a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
messenger RNA a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein.
ribosomal RNA an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function.
transfer RNA an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation.
RNA polymerase an enzyme that starts the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template
promoter a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene.
termination signal a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene.
genetic code the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides that correspond to specific amino acids, specific the amino acid sequence of a protein.
codon a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
anticodon a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA.
genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual.
Created by: FarlowA20