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Bio 274 FINAL

Boutta kick this finals ass bois.

TermDefinition
Population A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time.
Population Ecology The study of how and why the number of individuals in a population changes over time.
Demography The study of processes that change population size and structure, such as birth, death, migration, and dispersal.
Life History The pattern of a species’ development, growth, life span, and reproduction.
Survivorship The probability that an individual will survive in a given year over the course of its life time.
Fecundity The number of (female) offspring produced by each female in the population.
Density Independent Growth When growth rate is not affected by the number of individuals in the population.
Density Dependent Growth When growth rate IS affected by the number of individuals in the population.
Life History Traits How an organism allocates resources to growth, development, survival, and reproduction.
Fitness trade-offs Inescapable compromises between two traits that cannot be optimized at the same time.
Population Growth Rate The change in the number of individuals per unit time.
Carrying Capacity The maximum population size the environment can support at a particular point in time.
Metapopulation A population of populations.
Community A group of interacting species in a given area.
Competition When individuals use the same resources, resulting in lower fitness for both.
Commensalism When one species benefits but the other species is unaffected
Mutualism When species interact in such a way confers fitness benefits to both
Consumption When one organism eats or absorbs nutrients from another. Increases fitness of one organism but not the other.
Amensalism When one species is inhibited or destroyed and the other species is unaffected.
Ecological Niche The space that a species occupies in a community, including it's range of resources and range of tolerable conditions.
Habitat Where an organism is found
Fundamental Niche The total range of ecological conditions allowing an organism to persist.
Realized Niche The total range of ecological conditions under which an organism actually persists in nature.
Neutral Interaction When niches overlap, species have no effect on each other
Positive Interaction When niches overlap, at least one species is positively affected by the other.
Negative Interaction When niches overlap, coexistence has negative effects on one or both species.
Competitive Exclusion Two different species cannot occupy the identical ecological niche without one out-competing the other.
Character Displacement The evolutionary change that occurs in species' traits and that enables species to exploit different resources.
Niche Differentiation An evolutionary change in resource use, caused by competition over generations.
Evolutionary Arms-Race When prey are constantly developing new defenses against predators and predators are constantly developing new weapons to consume them.
Herbivory When herbivores consume plant tissues.
Parasitism When a parasite consumes tissue or nutrients from its host.
Predation When a predator kills and consumes all or most of another individual.
Constitutive Defenses A defense that is always on, regardless of if a predator is present.
Mimicry A species resembling another.
Batesian Mimicry When a harmless or palatable species resembles a dangerous or poisonous species.
Mullerian Mimicry When a dangerous or poisonous species resembles another dangerous or poisonous species.
Inducible Defenses When a defense can be turned on or off depending on the danger.
Bernard Kettlewell Old Guy that looked at camouflage in moths.
Succession The recovery that follows a severe disturbance.
Primary Succession When a disturbance removes the soil and its organisms, as well as organisms that live above the surface.
Secondary Succession When a disturbance removes some or all of the organisms from an area but leaves the soil intact.
Successional Pathway The specific sequence of species that appears over time.
Pioneering Species The first organisms to arrive at a newly disturbed site.
Climax Species Species that are dominant in late successional communities.
Facilitation When early-arriving species make conditions more favorable for the arrival of certain later species.
Tolerance When existing species do not affect the probability that subsequent species will become established.
Inhibition When the presence of one species inhibits the establishment of another.
Keystone Species A species that has a much greater impact on the surrounding specie than its abundance and biomass would suggest.
Disturbance Any event that removes some individuals or biomass from a community.
Disturbance Regime The characteristic and predictable type of disturbance that a community will experience.
Endemic Species Species that are found in a specific area and nowhere else.
Conservation Hot Spots Areas with at least 1500 endemic vascular plant species and less than 70% of primary vegetation remaining.
Habitat Fragmentation The breakup of large, contiguous areas of natural habitat into small isolated pieces.
Interference Competition Takes place if an organism actively interferes with the ability of another organism to take up resources.
Scramble Competition Takes place if an organism reduces the amount of resources available for another organism.
G. Evelyn Hutchinson Old guy associated with the concept of an ecological niche.
Charles Krebs Old guy who did experiment with Hare populations to see how they were affected by predation and resource availability.
Joseph Connell Old guy who tested competitive exclusion theory on barnacle populations.
Frederic E. Clements Old guy who suggested that community structure is highly predictable about which species will occur together and which will not.
Henry A. Gleason Old guy who suggested that community structure is actually random and will form based on species' mutualistic needs.
Jim Estes Old guy associated with killer whales eating otters instead of seals and sea lions, which leads to more starfish and less kelp forests.
Robert Paine Old guy associated with keystone predators. He removed starfish from an area and mussels began to grow very rapidly and affect nearby species.
Created by: Dovahkiinandy