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Bio I Ch 12&10 Test

Bio I Ch 12&10 Test review

What is Cyanobacteria? What did they specifically do that was led to the creation of the atmosphere & evolution of aerobic organisms? Cyanobacteria - type of bacteria that gets energy from photosynthesis. They performed photosynthesis and produced oxygen to create atmosphere and evolve.
What is endosymbiosis? Different organisms living together, one inside the other.
What is ozone & how does it protect us from? Ozone is a "filter" that protects us from radiation and UV rays.
What reason did Darwin give for some of the plants and animals on the island resembling those in South America? migration
What is a population? Give an example. All individuals of a species that live in a specific area that can interbreed.
What is natural selection? Individuals with the most desirable traits will survive at higher rates, and pass the favorable traits to their offspring.
Why is genetic variation important to natural selection? If there were only one trait, all organisms would have the desired traits.
What is an adaptation? A characteristic, made by a mutation that organisms have that better suits the organism for their environment.
Can adaptations lead to the evolution of a population? Yes
Describe the process of Natural Selection and how it relates to evolution. Organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce to evolve the whole species eventually.
What are Darwin's theories? *Variations in population exist *Some individuals in a population will be better suited *Favorable traits will spread through population *Evidence from fossils that living things evolved
Explain what caused the differences in the beak shape of Darwin's finches. Different preferred eating habits/availability of food.
If you are better suited for your environment than others, what advantage does that give you over those individuals that are not? I have a better chance of survival and will be able to reproduce.
What is gradualism? Gradual change in a species over long periods of time.
What is punctuated equilibrium? Rapid species evolution through geologic time followed by periods of little to no change.
What is a homologous structure? Be able to identify structures that are homologous to each other. Same structure, different function.
What do homologous structures between organisms indicate? A common ancestry
What is a vestigial structure? Give an example. A bone/organ with little or no use. Example: appendix & wisdom teeth of humans; hind limb of whale
What are some different examples that show evidence of evolution? *fossils *geography *anatomy & development *embryology & biological molecules
What would be the best way to determine how closely related two species are to each other...use their physical appearance or sequence their DNA? sequence their DNA
What is divergence? Accumulation of differences between groups leading to the formation of new species
What is convergent evolution? When two completely unrelated organisms resemble each other because they live in similar environments and evolved similarly.
What is gene flow? The transfer of alleles from one population to another.
What can geographic isolation lead to? Extinction, because a species can't interbreed and reproduce.
What is a fossil? Preserved or mineralized remains or imprint of an organism that lived long ago.
How are fossils formed? Preserved/mineralized remains buried in sediment deposited by water, wind, or volcanic eruptions. *Older fossils, deeper in Earth's crust *Younger fossils closer to surface of Earth
How do fossils help scientists learn about evolution? Fossils prove: -Earth's age (4.5 billion years) -organisms have inhabited Earth almost as long as Earth has been around -All organisms share common ancestry with earlier simpler species
List some barriers that can create reproductive isolation. *geographic isolation *physical differences *no attraction *infertility
Created by: alldyn.sch