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Foils's Midterm

TermDefinition
advanced industrial democracy a system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerable amount of personal freedom and maintains a free-market (though still usually regulated) economy
anarchy the absence of government and laws
authoritarian capitalism a system in which the state allows people economic freedom but maintains stringent social regulations to limit noneconomic behavior
authoritarian governments systems in which the state holds all power over the social order
authority power that is recognized as legitimate
capitalist economy an economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is privately owned
citizens members of a political community with both rights and responsibilities
communist democracy a utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically
democracy government that vests power in the people
divine right of kings the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God
economics production and distribution of a society’s material resources and services
elite democracy a theory of democracy that limits the citizens’ role to choosing among competing leaders
government a system or an organization for exercising authority over a body of people
institutions organizations in which governmental power is exercised
laissez-faire capitalism an economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role
legitimate accepted as “right” or proper
participatory democracy a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives
pluralist democracy a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
politics who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourse to violence
popular sovereignty the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
power the ability to get other people to do what you want
procedural guarantees government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes
regulated capitalism a market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights and make procedural guarantees
republic a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people
rules directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity
social contract the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
social democracy a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy and a government that supports equality
social order the way we organize and live our collective lives
socialist economy an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions and property is government owned
subjects individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights
substantive guarantees government assurance of particular outcomes or results
totalitarian a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life
asylum protection or sanctuary, especially from political persecution
communitarians those who favor a strong, substantive government role in the economy and the social order in order so that their vision of a community of equals may be realized
conservatives people who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change
economic conservatives those who favor a strictly procedural government role in the economy and the social order
economic liberals those who favor an expanded government role in the economy but a limited role in the social order
ideologies sets of beliefs about politics and society that help people make sense of their world
immigrants citizens or subjects of one country who move to another country to live or work
individualism belief that what is good for society is based on what is good for individuals
liberals people who generally favor government action and view change as progress
libertarians those who favor a minimal government role in any sphere
naturalization the legal process of acquiring citizenship for someone who has not acquired it by birth
normative describes beliefs or values about how things should be or what people ought to do rather than what actually is
political culture the broad pattern of ideas, beliefs, and values about citizens and government held by a population
procedural guarantees government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes
refugees individuals who flee an area or a country because of persecution on the basis of race, nationality, religion, group membership, or political opinion
social conservatives those who endorse limited government control of the economy but considerable government intervention to realize a traditional social order; based on religious values and hierarchy rather than equality
social liberals those who favor greater control of the economy and the social order to bring about greater equality and to regulate the effects of progress
values central ideas, principles, or standards that most people agree are important
Anti-Federalists advocates of states’ rights who opposed the Constitution
Articles of Confederation the first constitution of the United States (1777) creating an association of states with weak central government
Bill of Rights a summary of citizen rights guaranteed and protected by a government; added to the Constitution as its first ten amendments in order to achieve ratification
Common Sense 1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
confederation a government in which independent states unite for common purpose but retain their own sovereignty
constitution the rules that establish a government
Constitutional Convention the assembly of fifty-five delegates in the summer of 1787 to recast the Articles of Confederation; the result was the U.S. Constitution
Declaration of Independence the political document that dissolved the colonial ties between the United States and Britain
factions groups of citizens united by some common passion or interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community
federalism a political system in which power is divided between the central and regional units
Federalists supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong central government
The Federalist Papers a series of essays written to build support for ratification of the Constitution
feudalism a social system in which a rigid social and political hierarchy was based on the ownership of land
French and Indian War a war fought between France and England, and allied Indians, from 1754 to 1763; resulted in France’s expulsion from the New World
Great Compromise the constitutional solution to congressional representation: equal votes in the Senate, votes by population in the House
New Jersey Plan a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be equal, thus favoring the small states
popular sovereignty the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
popular tyranny the unrestrained power of the people
ratification the process through which a proposal is formally approved and adopted by vote
Shays’s Rebellion a grassroots uprising (1787) by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures
slavery the ownership, for forced labor, of one people by another
Three-fifths Compromise the formula for counting five slaves as three people for purposes of representation that reconciled northern and southern factions at the Constitutional Convention
Virginia Plan a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be based on population, thus favoring the large states
amendability the provision for the Constitution to be changed, so as to adapt to new circumstances
bicameral legislature legislature with two chambers
block grants federal funds provided for a broad purpose, unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations
categorical grant federal funds provided for a specific purpose, restricted by detailed instructions, regulations, and compliance standards
checks and balances the principle that allows each branch of government to exercise some form of control over the others
concurrent powers powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
confederal system a government in which local units hold all the power
cooperative federalism the federal system under which the national and state governments share responsibilities for most domestic policy areas
devolution the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
dual federalism the federal system under which the national and state governments are responsible for separate policy areas
Electoral College an intermediary body that elects the president
enumerated powers of Congress congressional powers specifically named in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8)
executive the branch of government responsible for putting laws into effect
fusion of powers an alternative to separation of powers, combining or blending branches of government
Gibbons v. Ogden Supreme Court ruling (1824) establishing national authority over interstate business
initiative citizen petitions to place a proposal or constitutional amendment on the ballot, to be adopted or rejected by majority vote, bypassing the legislature
judicial power the power to interpret laws and judge whether a law has been broken
judicial review power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
legislative supremacy an alternative to judicial review, the acceptance of legislative acts as the final law of the land
legislature the body of government that makes law
McCulloch v. Maryland Supreme Court ruling (1819) confirming the supremacy of national over state government
necessary and proper clause constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
nullification declaration by a state that a federal law is void within its borders
parliamentary system government in which the executive is chosen by the legislature from among its members and the two branches are merged
presidential system government in which the executive is chosen independently of the legislature and the two branches are separate
recall elections votes to remove elected officials from office
referendum an election in which a bill passed by the state legislature is submitted to voters for approval
republic a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people
separation of powers the institutional arrangement that assigns judicial, executive, and legislative powers to different persons or groups, thereby limiting the powers of each
supremacy clause constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the supreme law of the land
unfunded mandate a federal order mandating that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
unicameral legislature a legislature with one chamber
unitary system government in which all power is centralized
accommodationists supporters of government nonpreferential accommodation of religion
bad tendency test rule used by the courts that allows speech to be punished if it leads to punishable actions
bills of attainder laws under which specific persons or groups are detained and sentenced without trial
civil liberties individual freedoms guaranteed to the people primarily by the Bill of Rights
civil rights citizenship rights guaranteed to the people (primarily in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments) and protected by the government
clear and present danger test rule used by the courts that allows language to be regulated only if it presents an immediate and urgent danger
compelling state interest a fundamental state purpose, which must be shown before the law can limit some freedoms or treat some groups of people differently
due process of the law guarantee that laws will be fair and reasonable and that citizens suspected of breaking the law will be treated fairly
establishment clause the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
ex post facto laws laws that criminalize an action after it occurs
exclusionary rule rule created by the Supreme Court that evidence seized illegally may not be used to obtain a conviction
fighting words speech intended to incite violence
free exercise clause the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
freedom of assembly the right of the people to gather peacefully and to petition government
habeas corpus the right of an accused person to be brought before a judge and informed of the charges and evidence against him or her
imminent lawless action test rule used by the courts that restricts speech only if it is aimed at producing or is likely to produce imminent lawless action
incorporation Supreme Court action making the protections of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states
Lemon test three-pronged rule used by the courts to determine whether the establishment clause is violated
libel written defamation of character
Miller test rule used by the courts in which the definition of obscenity must be based on local standards
police power the ability of the government to protect its citizens and maintain social order
political correctness the idea that language shapes behavior and therefore should be regulated to control its social effects
prior restraint censorship of or punishment for the expression of ideas before the ideas are printed or spoken
sedition speech that criticizes the government
selective incorporation incorporation of rights on a case-by-case basis
separationists supporters of a “wall of separation” between church and state
affirmative action a policy of creating opportunities for members of certain groups as a substantive remedy for past discrimination
black codes a series of laws in the post–Civil War South designed to restrict the rights of former slaves before the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
boycott refusal to buy certain goods or services as a way to protest policy or force political reform
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court case that rejected the idea that separate could be equal in education
busing achieving racial balance by transporting students to schools across neighborhood boundaries
civil rights citizenship rights guaranteed to the people (primarily in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments) and protected by the government
de facto discrimination discrimination that is the result not of law but rather of tradition and habit
de jure discrimination discrimination arising from or supported by the law
English-only movements efforts to make English the official language of the United States
Equal Rights Amendment constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
grandfather clauses provisions exempting from voting restrictions the descendants of those able to vote in 1867
intermediate standard of review standard of review used by the Court to evaluate laws that make a quasisuspect classification
literacy tests tests requiring reading or comprehension skills as a qualification for voting
Jim Crow laws southern laws designed to circumvent the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments and to deny blacks rights on bases other than race
minimum rationality test standard of review used by the Court to evaluate laws that make a nonsuspect classification
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) an interest group founded in 1910 to promote civil rights for African Americans
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case that established the constitutionality of the principle “separate but equal”
poll taxes taxes levied as a qualification for voting
racism institutionalized power inequalities in society based on the perception of racial differences
Reconstruction the period following the Civil War during which the federal government took action to rebuild the South
segregation the practice and policy of separating races
sexual harassment unwelcome sexual speech or behavior that creates a hostile work environment
strict scrutiny a heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that limit some freedoms or that make a suspect classification
suspect classification classification, such as race, for which any discriminatory law must be justified by a compelling state interest
allocative representation congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district
bicameral legislature legislature with two chambers
casework legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs
cloture a vote to end a Senate filibuster; requires a three-fifths majority, or sixty votes
coattail effect the added votes received by congressional candidates of a winning presidential party
conference committees temporary committees formed to reconcile differences in House and Senate versions of a bill
congressional oversight a committee’s investigation of the executive and of government agencies to ensure they are acting as Congress intends committees, to monitor agency rule making, enforcement, and implementation of congressional policies
constituency the voters in a state or district
descriptive representation the idea that an elected body should mirror demographically the population it represents
filibuster a practice of unlimited debate in the Senate in order to prevent or delay a vote on a bill
franking the privilege of free mail service provided to members of Congress
gerrymandering redistricting to benefit a particular group
House Rules Committee the committee that determines how and when debate on a bill will take place
hyperpartisanship a commitment to party so strong it can transcend other commitments
incumbency advantage the electoral edge afforded to those already in office
joint committees combined House-Senate committees formed to coordinate activities and expedite legislation in a certain area
legislative agenda the slate of proposals and issues that representatives think it worthwhile to consider and act on (7)
majority party the party with the most seats in a house of Congress
midterm loss the tendency for the presidential party to lose congressional seats in off-year elections
national lawmaking the creation of policy to address the problems and needs of the entire nation
norms informal rules that govern behavior in Congress
omnibus legislation a large bill that contains so many important elements that members can’t afford to defeat it and the president can’t afford to veto it, even if the bill contains elements they dislike
partisan gerrymandering process by which districts are drawn to maximize the number of House seats a political party can win
partisanship loyalty to a party that helps shape how members see the world, define problems, and identify appropriate solutions
party polarization greater ideological (liberal versus conservative) differences between the parties and increased ideological consensus within the parties
pocket veto presidential authority to kill a bill submitted within ten days of the end of a legislative session by not signing it
polarization the ideological distance between the parties and the ideological homogeneity within them
policy entrepreneurship practice of legislators becoming experts and taking leadership roles in specific policy areas
policy representation congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents
pork barrel public works projects and grants for specific districts paid for by general revenues
racial gerrymandering redistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or ethnic group will elect members to the legislature
representation the efforts of elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them
reapportionment a reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census
redistricting process of dividing states into legislative districts
roll call votes publicly recorded votes on bills and amendments on the floor of the House or the Senate
select committee a committee appointed to deal with an issue or problem not suited to a standing committee
seniority system the accumulation of power and authority in conjunction with the length of time spent in office
Speaker of the House the leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives
standing committees permanent committees responsible for legislation in particular policy areas
strategic politicians office-seekers who base the decision to run on a rational calculation that they will be successful
symbolic representation efforts of members of Congress to stand for American ideals or to identify with common constituency values
veto override reversal of a presidential veto by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress
cabinet a presidential advisory group selected by the president, made up of the vice president, the heads of the federal executive departments, and other high officials to whom the president elects to give cabinet status
chief administrator the president’s executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
chief of staff the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
Council of Economic Advisers organization within the EOP that advises the president on economic matters
chief foreign policy maker the president’s executive role as the primary shaper of relations with other nations
commander-in-chief the president’s role as the top officer of the country’s military establishment
cycle effect the predictable rise and fall of a president’s popularity at different stages of a term in office
divided government political rule split between two parties, in which one controls the White House and the other controls one or both houses of Congress
executive agreements presidential arrangements with another country that create foreign policy without the need for Senate approval
Executive Office of the President collection of nine organizations that help the president with policy and political objectives
executive order clarifications of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
going public the apolitical, unifying role of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country
head of government the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources
head of state the apolitical, unifying role of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country
honeymoon period the time following an election when a president’s popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive
impeachment a formal charge by the House that the president (or another member of the executive branch) has committed acts of “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors,” which may or may not result in removal from office
inherent powers presidential powers implied but not explicitly stated in the Constitution
legislative liaison executive personnel who work with members of Congress to secure their support in getting a president’s legislation passed
National Security Council (NSC) the organization within the Executive Office of the President that provides foreign policy advice to the president
Office of Management and Budget organization within the Executive Office of the President that oversees the budgets of departments and agencies
pardoning power a president’s authority to release or excuse a person from the legal penalties of a crime
power to persuade a president’s ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration’s agenda
presidential style image projected by the president that represents how he would like to be perceived at home and abroad
presidential veto a president’s authority to reject a bill passed by Congress; may be overridden only by a two-thirds majority in each house
senatorial courtesy tradition of granting senior senators of the president’s party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
signing statements statements recorded along with signed legislation clarifying the president’s understanding of the constitutionality of the bill
solicitor general Justice Department officer who argues the government’s cases before the Supreme Court
State of the Union address a speech given annually by the president to a joint session of Congress and to the nation announcing the president’s agenda
treaties formal agreements with other countries; negotiated by the president and requiring approval by two-thirds of the Senate
White House Office the approximately four hundred employees within the Executive Office of the President who work most closely and directly with the president
accountability the principle that bureaucratic employees should be answerable for their performance to supervisors, all the way up the chain of command
agency capture process whereby regulatory agencies come to be protective of and influenced by the industries they were established to regulate
bureaucracy an organization characterized by hierarchical structure, worker specialization, explicit rules, and advancement by merit
bureaucratese the often unintelligible language used by bureaucrats to avoid controversy and lend weight to their words
bureaucratic culture the accepted values and procedures of an organization
bureaucratic discretion bureaucrats’ use of their own judgment in interpreting and carrying out the laws of Congress
citizen advisory councils citizen groups that consider the policy decisions of an agency; a way to make the bureaucracy responsive to the general public
civil service nonmilitary employees of the government who are appointed through the merit system
clientele groups groups of citizens whose interests are affected by an agency or a department and who work to influence its policies
congressional oversight a committee’s investigation of the executive and of government agencies to ensure they are acting as Congress intends; efforts by Congress, especially through committees, to monitor agency rule making, enforcement, and implementation of congressional poli
department one of the major subdivisions of the federal government, represented in the president’s cabinet
Federal Register publication containing all federal regulations and notifications of regulatory agency hearings
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 1966 law that allows citizens to obtain copies of most public records
government corporations companies created by Congress to provide to the public a good or service that private enterprise cannot or will not profitably provide
Hatch Act 1939 law limiting the political involvement of civil servants in order to protect them from political pressure and keep politics out of the bureaucracy
independent agencies government organizations independent of the departments but with a narrower policy focus
independent regulatory boards and commissions government organizations that regulate various businesses, industries, or economic sectors
iron triangles the phenomenon of a clientele group, congressional committee, and bureaucratic agency cooperating to make mutually beneficial policy
issue networks complex systems of relationships between groups that influence policy, including elected leaders, interest groups, specialists, consultants, and research institutes
neutral competence the principle that bureaucracy should be depoliticized by making it more professional
patronage system in which successful party candidates reward supporters with jobs or favors
Pendleton Act 1883 civil service reform that required the hiring and promoting of civil servants to be based on merit, not patronage
Privacy Act of 1974 a law that gives citizens access to the government’s files on them
red tape the complex procedures and regulations surrounding bureaucratic activity
regulations limitations or restrictions on the activities of a business or an individual
spoils system the nineteenth-century practice of rewarding political supporters with public office
sunshine laws legislation opening the process of bureaucratic policymaking to the public
whistleblowers individuals who publicize instances of fraud, corruption, or other wrongdoing in the bureaucracy
Created by: 594728