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Accumulative final review

ABG ranges ph 7.35 - 7.45, PaCO2 35-45, HCO3 22-26, SaO2 95-100%
Types of Acidosis Respiratory and Metabolic Acidosis
Respiratory Acidosis results from: Acidic pH & CO2
Metabolic Acidosis results from: Acidic pH & HCO3
Types of Alkalosis Respiratory and Metabolic Alkalosis
HYPERventilation caused by: Anxiety, high altitudes, pregnancy, fever, hypoxia, intial stages of PE
HYPOventilation caused by: Drug overdose, pulmonary edema, respiratory acidosis, airway obstruction, COPD, chest trauma, neuromuscular disease
Respiratory alkalosis results from Base pH & CO2
Metabolic alkalosis results from Base pH & HCO3
Metabolic Alkalosis caused by: Loss of gastric juices, K+ wasting diuretics, overuse of antacids
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by: Hyperventilation, anxiety, PE, fear, mechanical ventilation
Sx of Metabolic Acidosis Headache, decreased B/P, hyperkalemia, muscle twitching, warm/flushed skin, n/v/d, confusion, drowsiness
Metabolic Acidosis is caused by: Shock, sepsis, severe diarrhea, renal failure, salicylate OD, DKA
Sx of Metabolic Alkalosis Restlessness, dysrhythmias, compensatory hypoventilation, confusion, dizzy, irritable, n/v/d, tremors, muscle cramps, tingling of fingers and toes, hypokalemia
Sx of Respiratory Acidosis Hypoventilation leading to hypoxia, rapid/shallow respirations, low B/P w/ vasodilation, dyspnea, headache, hyperkalemia, dysrhythmias, drowsiness, dizziness, disorientation, muscle weakness, hyperreflexia
Respiratory Acidosis caused by Low resp. stimuli (anesthesia, drug OD, COPD, pneumonia, atelectasis
Sx of Respiratory Alkalosis Seizures, deep/rapid breaths, hyperventilation, tachycardia, low or normal B/P, hypokalemia, numbness/tingling, lethargy, confusion, light headedness, n/v
Created by: daydreamer67