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Helminths

OrganismTypeTransmissionDiseaseTreatment
Strongyloides stercoralis Nematode (round worm) Larvae in soli penetrate the skin Intestinal infection that causes vomiting, diarrhea, anemia Ivermectin/thiabendazole
Ancylostoma duodenale, Necaor americanus, aka ___ Nematode (round worm) Hookworm; Larvae penetrate skin of feet; Intestinal infection can cause anemia (sucks blood from intestinal wall) Mebendazole/pyrantal pamoate (BENDy; treat with meBENDazole)
Dracunculus medinesis Nematode (round worm) In drinking water skin inflammation and ulceration Niridazole
Onchocera volvulus Nematode (round worm) Blackfly transmission, River blindness Skin nodules, "lizard skin", can have an allergic reaction to microfilaria Ivermectin (IVERmectin for rIVER blindness)
Loa loa Nematode (round worm) Deer fly, horse fly, mango fly causes swelling in skin (worm crawling in conjunctiva) Diethylcarbamazine
Wucheria bancrofti Nematode (round worm) Female mosquito Blockage of lympahtic vessels "elephantitis" (~ 1 year to get symptoms) Diethylcarbamazine
Taenia solium Cestodes (tapeworm) Ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork= leads to intestinal tapeworms; Ingestion of eggs = "swiss cheese appearence", cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis, mass lesions in brain Praziquantel for intestinal worms and cystericosis; albendazole for neurocysticercosis
Diphyllobothrim latum Cestodes (tapeworm) Ingestion of larvae in raw freshwater fish B12 deficiency (anemia) Praziquantel
Echinococcus granulosus Cestodes (tapeworm) Eggs in dog feces cysts in liver, anaphylaxis if echinococcal antigens are released from cysts (Hydatid cyst) Albendazole
Schistosoma trematodes (flukes) snails = host, cercariae penetrate skin of humans and cause granulomas squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder Praziquantel
Clonorchis sinensis trematodes (flukes) Undercooked fish inflammation of the biliary tract --> pigmented gallstones; cholangiocarcinoma Praziquantel
Paragonimus westermani trematodes (flukes) Undercooked crabmeat inflammation and secondary bacterial infection of the lung Praziquantel
toxocara canis Nematodes (roundworm) eggs in feces (eaten through contaminated food) Causes granuloma (if in retina--> blindness) and visceral larva migrans Diethylcarbamazine
Enterobius vermicularis aka __- Nematode (roundworm) pinworm; Food contaminated with eggs; intestinal infection; Anal pruritis (scotch tape test) Mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate
Ascaris lumbricoides aka ___ Nematode (round worm) Giant roundworm)Eggs are visible in feces; Intestinal infection Mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate
Trichinella spiralis Nematode (round worm) Undercooked meat (pork), inflammation of muscle (larvae encyst in muscle) periorbital edema Thiabendazole
Created by: ddecampo