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protozoa

Single celled organism

DiseaseOrganismTransmissionDiagnosisTreatmentMorphology
Spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia (increased abdominal size, replicates in phagocytes). Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) Leishmania donovani. Think "young malnourished child" Sandfly Macrophages containing amastigotes sodium stibogluconate Flagellated
Malaria: desrcribe different kinds Plasmodium (vivax, ovale, malariae, falciprum); Symptoms: cyclic fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly; Severe: cerebral falciprum; Vivax/ovalae= dormant forms in liver (hypnozoites) --> relapsing malaria Mosquito (Anopheles) Blood smear Chloroquine (primaquine to prevent relapse caused by vivax, ovale, sulfadoxine+ pyrimethamine, mefloquine, quinine Trophozoite ring form in RBC, RBC schizont (bag of nuclei) with merozites (with cell membranes)
Fever, hemolytic anemia, predominantly in Northeastern US Babesiosis: Babesia Ixodes tick Blood smear, no RBC pigment, appears like "Maltese cross" Quinine, clindamycin Maltese cross and ring forms
Severe diarrhea in AIDS, Mild disease in non-immunocompromised host Cryptosporidium Cysts in water Cysts on acid fast None
Brain abcess in HIV, birth defects (ring-enhancing lesion) Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in meat/cat feces, crosses placenta (pregnant women should avoid cats Serology, biopsy Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
Bloody diarrhea (dysentery) liver abcess, RUQ pain Amebiasis: Entamoeba histolytica Cysts in water Serology and/or trophozites or cysts in stool; RBCs in cytoplasm of entamoeba Metronidazole and iodoquinol
Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis Naegleria fowleri Swimming in freswater lakes (enter via cribiform plate) Amoebas in spinal fluid None
Bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling diarrhea (often seen in campers/hikers) Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia); both trophozoite/cyst form Cysts in water Trophozoites or cysts in stool Metronidazole
Foul-smelling greenish discharge, itching, burning Vaginitis: Trichomonas Sexual Trophozoites (motile) wet mount Metronidazole
Dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus); predominantly in South America Chaga's disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) Reduviid bug (kissing bug) Blood smear Nifurtimox
Enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever (due to antigenic variation) somnolence, coma African Sleeping sickness (trypansoma gambiense, rhodesiense) Tsetse fly Blood smear SURamin for blood borne disease, MELArsoprole for CNS penetration(it SURe is nice to go to sleep; MELAtonin helps sleep)
Created by: ddecampo