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chap. 9 & 10

geyser jet like emissions of steam and hot water from constricted vents
hotspring pool of heated water
what makes a geyser? heat source water plumbing system
earthquake trembling of earth caused by energy released when slip occurs on fault plane
sintercone little cone around top of geyser made from reprecipitated silica, (builds up slower than travertine)
Mammoth Hot Springs Terrace formed by rock fractures, heat and water
triangulation method calculates the lag time between primary and secondary waves to find the distance from the quake
seismic waves waves of energy that travel through earth's layers, are a result of earthquakes volvanoes or explosions
ring of fire area in the basin of the pacific ocean where a lot of earthquakes and volcano eruptions occur
seismology study of earthquakes
where are earthquakes most common? plate boundaries and within the plates
at a subduction boundary there are.. volcanoes and earthquakes which create tsunamis
focus actual location of slippage, shallow more damage
epicenter location at the earth's surface
the richter scale logarithmic scale of 0-10 used to determine magnitude of earthquake
differential erosion different rocks erode at different rates
uplands resistant rocks form ridges
lowlands non-resistant rocks form valleys
strike orientation of the rock plane with respect to compass direction
dip angle between rock plane and horizontal plane
strike= compass direction
dip= angle
drainage networks patterns in river system
dendritic flat, uniform surfaces, rivers free to meander
trellis ridge and valley topography, rivers controlled by bedrock
radial rivers flow down a mountain in all directions
caprock more resistant rocks that hold softer rocks in place
plateau large flat surface capped by resistant rock w/@ least one steep side
mesa flat surface bounded on all sides by steep cliffs, capped
butte smaller but also flat surface bounded on all sides by steep cliffs
how to tell whether butte or mesa if width is greater than height it's a mesa if height is greater than width its a butte
cuesta lowland topography broad, gently sloping, more resistant uplands
sedimentary dome uplift of igneous rock where erosion removes sedimentary rock and creates sharp crest
hogback sharp crested fins of resistant rock
ridge and valley topography created by fold belts often with uniform patterns trellis drainage
metamorphic belts high variable folded landforms not uniform like ridge and valley weaker metamorphic racks form valleys
monadnocks isolated projections of igneous rock surrounded by an eroded plain
neck inside of old volcano
dike when lava fills vertically in cracks
chemical weathering rocks change to softer more soluable forms
physical weathering rocks are fractured and broken
frost action -water seeps into joints and fractures freezes and expands -joint block seperation crack gets bigger each time freezes - granular disintegration, smaller scale joint block
talus cone collection of scree at base of mountain
salt weathering evaporation results in precipitation of salt crystals grain by brain disintegration of rocks creates rock shelters
unloading granite batholiths are under pressure beneath surface and when exposed they unload their pressure which results in weathering by peeling of rock layers
exfoliation dome created by unloading of the rock with it sheeting off by layer
oxidation rust- transforming existing minerals into oxides
hydrolysis transformation of existing minerals by contact with water
carbonation water becomes carbonic acid and dissolves materials
mass wasting downhill movement of soil, regolith, or rock under influence of gravity
regolith partially weathered bed rock
residual regolith forms in place
transported regolith alluvium and colluvium
alluvium moved by water
colluvium moved by gravity
soil creep extremely slow downhill movement of soil
earthflow slump relatively slow downhill movement of saturated sediments
mudflow rapid downhill movement of water saturated debris
lahars volcanic mudflow
debris flood rapid downhill movement of water saturated debris with more water than mudflow
landslide rapid sliding of large masses of earth material
what causes landslides? earthquakes, heavy rains, over steepening, volcanic eruptions, unstable structures
triggers for mass wasting undercuting slopes by building highways, piling up debris, deforestation
Created by: 1738400229818217