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Heredity Questions

TermDefinition
Gene A short section of DNA in a chromosome which contains instructions for making a protein.
Nucleus The region of the cell which contains genetic material and controls the activities of the cell.
Chromatid The two identical halves of a chromosome produced for cell division and meiosis.
Haploid Describes a cell with half the full number of chromosomes (23 for humans).
Diploid Describes a cell with a full number of chromosomes (46 for humans).
Centromere The region where two sister chromatids are joined and to which a spindle fibre is attached during cell division.
Genotype This word describes the genetic make-up of an organism (i.e. the combination of alleles).
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid This amazing molecule has a distinctive spiral shape. It can replicate itself in cells and is used to carry genetic information.
Gamete A male or female reproductive cell (sperm or ovum) with a haploid set of chromosomes (23 for humans).
Genome All genetic information of a particular organism.
Cystic Fibrosis A genetic disease that affects the lungs, digestive and reproductive systems. Inherited through a recessive allele.
Carrier A person who can pass on a genetic disease but does not suffer with it.
Phenotype This word describes the observable, physical characteristics that an organism has.
Homozygous A genotype made up of two alleles that are the same for a particular gene (e.g. HH or hh) is said to be.....
Meiosis Cell division which produces haploid cells. This process makes gametes for sexual reproduction.
Dominant This type of allele always shows its characteristic phenotype even if the individual only has one copy of the allele.
Proteins These thread-like structures are found in the nuclei of most cells. They carry genetic information and are made of long, coiled strands of DNA.
Zygote The diploid cell formed when two gametes combine.
Mitosis Cell division where one cell splits into two identical daughter cells.
Punnet Square A type of grid diagram used to show all the potential combinations of offspring genotypes that can occur and their probability.
Allele Different versions of the same gene. They can be either recessive or dominant.
Recessive This type of allele only shows its characteristic phenotype if paired with an identical allele.
Heterozygous A genotype made up of two different alleles (e.g. Aa) is said to be....
Heredity The passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Created by: Leila21