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Brechbill ch 13

Stars and Galaxies Vocab

TermDefinition
chromosphere layer of the sun's atmosphere above the photosphere; color
Polaris the north star
Proxima Centauri next closest star to earth after the sun
Sirius brightest star in the night sky
circumpolar stars and constellations that seem to go around Polaris
constellation group of stars that form a pattern in the sky
apparent magnitude measure of the amount of light received by earth from a star; how bright it looks
absolute magnitude measure of the amount of light a star actually gives off; as if they were all the same distance away
nebula spinning cloud of dust and gas; the birth place of stars
black hole final stage of a massive star; gravity is so strong, not even light can escape
light year unit representing how far light travels in one year; used to record astronomical distances
white dwarf late stage of a low mass or main sequence star; outer layers escape leaving behind a HOT, DENSE CORE
super giant late stage of a massive star; stars core heats up and expands, leading to a supernova
Red Shift proves that stars and galaxies are moving away from earth because the wavelengths of light are stretched to the red end of the spectrum
Big Bang Theory states that 13.7 billion years ago, the universe began with a huge fiery explosion.
galaxy large group of stars, dust, and gasses held together by gravity; elliptical, spiral, or irregular
neutron star collapsed core of a supernova that contains only neutrons in its dense core
red giant late stage of a low mass or main sequence star; outer layers expand and cool; late stage of the sun
main sequence 90% of stars that are burning the hydrogen in their core; middle-aged stars; diagonal band on the HR diagram
convection zone circulation of gases in an area inside the sun
photosphere lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere; sometimes referred to as the surface of the sun; gives of LIGHT
corona outermost, largest layer of the sun's atmosphere; can be seen during a total solar eclipse
sunspot areas on the surface of the sun that are cooler and less bright.
Created by: brechbillc