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Saul O., A1, ESPS

Big bang
Astronomy the branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole.
Doppler Shift a change in frequency due to the Doppler effect.
Red Shift the displacement of spectral lines toward longer wavelengths (the red end of the spectrum) in radiation from distant galaxies and celestial objects
Blue Shift the displacement of the spectrum to shorter wavelengths in the light coming from distant celestial objects moving toward the observer.
Frequency the rate at which a vibration occurs that constitutes a wave, either in a material (as in sound waves), or in an electromagnetic field (as in radio waves and light), usually measured per second.
Wavelength the distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave.
Absolute Brightness (magnitude) the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object. It is the hypothetical apparent magnitude of an object at a standard distance of exactly 10 parsecs (32.6 light years) from the observer, assuming no astronomical extinction of starlight.
Apparent Brightness (magnitude) a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... The Sun, at apparent magnitude of −27, is the brightest object in the sky. It is adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
Cosmic Microwave Background the thermal radiation left over from the time of recombination in Big Bang cosmology.
Universe all existing matter and space considered as a whole
Galaxy a system of millions or billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction.
Solar System the collection of eight planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
Star a fixed luminous point in the night sky that is a large, remote incandescent body like the sun.
Planet a celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit around a star.
Electromagnetic Spectrum the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.
AU- Astronomical Unit An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun at 8 million kilometers
Solar Nebula a nebula cloud made from a collection of dust and gas. It is believed that the sun, planets, moons, and asteroids were formed around
Gas giant a large planet of relatively low density consisting predominantly of hydrogen and helium, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune.
Nuclear fusion a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy.
Convective zone A region of turbulent plasma between a star's core and its visible photosphere at the surface
Photosphere the luminous envelope of a star from which its light and heat radiate.
Chromosphere a reddish gaseous layer immediately above the photosphere of the sun or another star. Together with the corona, it constitutes the star's outer atmosphere.
Corona the rarefied gaseous envelope of the sun and other stars. The sun's corona is normally visible only during a total solar eclipse when it is seen as an irregularly shaped pearly glow surrounding the darkened disk of the moon.
Sunspot a spot or patch appearing from time to time on the sun's surface, appearing dark by contrast with its surroundings.
Prominence the fact or condition of standing out from something by physically projecting or being particularly noticeable.
Solar Flare a brief eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface,
Coronal mass ejection A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an unusually large release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona
Light year a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is 9.4607 × 1012 km (nearly 6 trillion miles)
Parallax the effect whereby the position or direction of an object appears to differ when viewed from different positions
Main Sequence a series of star types to which most stars belong, represented on a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram as a continuous band extending from the upper left (hot, bright stars) to the lower right (cool, dim stars).
HR Diagram The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications or effective temperatures.
Created by: Saul_Osorio