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BIM Final Review 2

Lecture 5: Biomedical Imaging

Imaging fundamentals Resolution the detail an image holds. How close lines can be to each other and still be distinctly visible
Imaging fundamentals Noise random (not present in the object) variations of brightness or color information in images. Usually an aspect of electronic noise.
Imaging fundamentals Digital storage
Imaging systems ultrasound, x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), optical imaging
Ultrasound sound waves with frequencies higher than upper audible limit echo off tissues
Different tissues reflect ultrasounds differently
Functional ultrasound Doppler – blood flow Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) Drug delivery Treatment of fibroids
X-ray electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by hard structures
Produced first medical images inside the body Wilhelm Rontgen in 1895
X-rays are best for imaging dense tissue (bone and teeth)
X-rays are also used for soft tissue heart and lung conditions, mammography Used with contrast dye
CT tomographic images (3D image composed of slices of specific areas) are obtained from large series of x-rays taken in different directions Digital
MRI essentially map the location of water via hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms generate radio frequencies.
MRI resolution compared to CT high
MRI's do not use radiation preferred to CT whenever it can be used
fMRI measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow – differences between oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood
PET patients emit radioactive waves
PET Radioactive components are targeted to specific functional aspects of a disease: cancer cells, inflammatory cells
Classes that are important to biomedical imaging Physics, math, computer programming, signal processing, image processing
Created by: 1543931625634163