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Bio of Bacteria Exam

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 types of mutation ranges? 1. Silent. 2. Slight. 3. Severe. 4. Lethal (high mortality)
How do you detect a nutritional mutant? Create a plate culture and replicate it on to 2 plates, 1 with all req. and 1 without. If bacteria grow outside of expected colonies on plate w/o req. then they are mutants
How do you detect resistant mutants? Add antibiotic or bacteriophage and look for zones of inhibition. If bacteria are present then they are resistant
How do you detect a mutant bacteria based on colony morphology? It will be pigmented and rough instead of clear and smooth
What are the 3 basic types of mutations? 1. Base-pair substitutions. 2. Frameshift. 3. Back Mutations (reversions)
WHat are the 3 types of base-pair mutations? 1. Missense-faulty protein. 2. Nonsense-stop codon inserted in wrong place. 3. Silent-normal protein
What are the 2 types of Frameshift mutations? 1. Insertion. 2. Deletion
What is a back mutation and its' 2 types? It is a phenotype that was lost after a wildtype mutation and is then restored. 1. Same-site. 2. Second site- A new mutation compensates for original mutation
What are 3 ways that you can induce mutations? 1. Chemically. 2.Radiation. 3. Biological
What is the Ames test? Method for testing if a compound causes mutations. It is a mutagen test not a carcinogen test
What are 3 types of vertical inheritance and evolutionary mechanisms? 1. Accumulation of neutral mutations with time. 2. Gene loss. 3. Horizontal gene transfer
Is GC contant a reliable way to classify bacteria? No
How effective is DNA hybridization in classifying bacteria and how is it done? Heat up DNA an separate strands, combine and cool to find hybridization levels. It is effective for close relatives only
What is the definition of a BBOM species? >70% hybridization
What are 4 housekeeping genes? DNA Poly, RNA poly, ATPase, Ribosomal components
What is the most effective way to classify bacteria? 16S RNA gene
Why is 16S RNA the best phylogenetic marker? It is present in all cells, Carries out the same function is all cells, and is alignable
How do you read a phylogenetic tree? The branch lengths are representative of the evolutionary distance between 2 organisms
On a phylogenetic tree, what do you call the point where most branches radiate from? The Main Radiation
What is homologous recombination? Genetic exchange between to DNA sequences. Rec A is important
What are the 4 types of genetic exchange? 1.Homologous recombination. 2. Transformation. 3. Transduction. 4. Conjugation
What is Transformation? Donor DNA is free in the environment and is taken up by a bacterium. Rec A recombinates new DNA into old
What is Transduction? Donor DNA is transformed by a virus
What are the 2 types of transduction? When do they occur? 1. Generalized: DNA from any part of a chromosome is transferred (low freq), occurs in lytic cycle. 2. Specialized: A specific part of chromosome is transferred (high freq)Occurs in lysogenic cycle
What is Conjugation? Cell to Cell contact, a conjugative plasmid is transferred from a donor
What are the 4 types of plasmids that are transferred by conjugation? 1. Fertility Factor. 2. Resistance Factor. 3. Virulence Plasmids. 4. Metabolic
What are 3 types of Conjugation? 1. F+ &F-, recipient becomes F+. 2. High Freq Recombination(recipient doesn't change into donor). 3. F* conjugation (Donor breaks off during conjugation, makes recipient Fprime)
What species of Cytophaga manifest as an infection in catfish? Cytophaga columnaris
What do Cytophaga use to move? Gliding with a polysaccharide slime
Are Cytophaga hutchinsonii able to digest crystalline cellulose? Yes
What species of Cytophaga cant grow above 30 degrees? Cytophaga psychropila
What causes the orange-yellow pigment in Cytophaga? Flexirubin pigment
Nitrospira can live in both marine and non-marine environments, true or false? True
Nitrospira is a what? Chemolithoautotroph
Marine life would die due to toxic amounts of what if Nitrospira weren't there? Ammonia
What are mutations? They are heritable changes in sequence of nucleic acid
What gives spirochetes their cork-screw movement? Internalized periplasmic flagella
Diseases from Treponema pallidum and Borrelia? Syphilis & Lyme
Spirochetes sweep food into mouths of? Mussels
Thermatoga have outermembrane sheath, T/F? True
Thermotoga % archaea? 25%
Deep lineage & Hyperthermophilic abilities? 1 of first bacterial organisms
How does Chylamidia muridarum replicate? Inclusions
Life cycles of Chlamydia Trachomatis Reticulate and Elementary
High genomic diversity in Chlamydia? Plasticity Zone
Cyanobacteria are primary colonizers, T/F? True
Deadly blue-green algae reaction? Blooms
Cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis and what? Respiration
Gram Positive grow on what agar? Phenyethyl alcohol agar
Aureus grows on what? Mannitol-Salt
What temp does Deinococcus Geothermalis grow? 47
Deinococcus Ficus originally isolated from? Rhizosphere of a Ficus plant
Where is Deinococcus radiodurans found? Antarticas dry valley and elephant feces
Created by: thorn1kl