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Gram negative bugs

Haemophilus influenzae - Diseases, worst type Epiglottis, Meningitis, Otitis media, Pneumonia, Capsule B
Haemophilus Influenzae characteristics: shape, Exotoxin Coccoid, IgA protease, has a capsule
Treat H. influenzae with Ceftriaxone
Legionella pneumophilia characteristics: facultative anaerobe
Treat legionnaires disease with___- Treat with Macrolides (erythromycin); no person-to-person contact
Pseudomonas aeruginosa disease Pneumonia, Sepsis (black lesion in skin), External otitis, Drus use (Acute endocarditis, osteomyelitis), Diabetic osteomyelitis, hot tub folliculitis
Treat pseudomonas with Extended spectrum penicillin (piperacillin, ticarcillin)
What are the 3 antigens produced by enterobacteriae and what do each do? O = excreted component of LPS, K = Kapsule (covers antigen), H = Part of flagella on bacteria that are motile
Klebsiella diseases 4 A's Aspiration pneumonia, Abcess in lungs, Alcoholics, di-A-betics, Cavitary pneumonia with red current jelly sputum; especially prevalent in alcoholics and diabetics; also causes nosocomial UTIs
Salmonella - Invasive diarreha with blood an mucus
(Shigella/salmonella) have flagella? Salmonella/Shigella produce H2S? Salmonella (like salmon, salmonella are good swimmers). Salmonelle produces H2s
Shigella/salmonella is more virulent? Shigella
How do shigella move? actin polymerization
Salmonella Typhi: invasive? symptoms? Chronic carriers release bacteria that are stored in ___ causes typhoid fever; invades lymph nodes, diarrhea, headache, rose spots on abdomen; gallbladder
Non-invasive diarrhea: E. coli, V. cholerae
Invasive diarrhea (epithelium) E. coli, Shigella, salmonella
Invasive diarrhea of lymph nodes Salmonella typhi, Yersinia, Campylobacter
Yersinia enterocolitica is transmitted via ___. Outbreaks commonly occur in what setting? Transmission = fecal oral; puppies, contaminated milk/pork. Day care centers
Symptoms of yersinia fever, diarrhea, RLQ pain, ulcerations in terminal ileum (mimics crohns and appendicitis)
Helicobacter pylori causes ___ and ___ ulcers gastritis and duodenal uclers
Helicobacter pylori puts people at risk for ___,___,___. Peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, lymphoma
Treatment for helicobacter pylori Triple therapy: 1)bismuth, metronidazole, tetracycline OR 2) Metronidazole, omeprazole, clarithromycin (more expensive)
Spirochetes: how are they visualized Borrelia (Giemsa; its big), Treponema (dark-field), leptospira
Leptospira characteristics. Where is it found? Spirochete that is shaped like a question mark and found in animal urine. Leptospirosis gives flulike symptoms fever, headache, ab pain, jaudice (2 phases)
Weil's disease is caused by ____. It presents with Icterhemorrhagic jaundice- due to leptospira. Starts with syndrome like a fever of unknown origin, then, petechial/subconjunctival hemorrhages, elevated liver enzymes, and protein may have serosal hemorrhages. Common in tropics with animals, water, mud
Lyme disease is caused by ____ Borrelia burgdoferi
To look at this organism you use ____. To diagnose Lyme's disease, you use ____> Giemsa, Western blott, ELISA
Lyme's disease: vector ___, reservoir ____, carrier of life cycle ____. vector = ixodes tick, reservoir = mouse, life cycle = white tailed deer
Desribe rash for Lyme's diseas Erythema chronicum migrans. "Bulls eye" red rash with central/blue clearing.
What are the organ's affected by lyme disease Remember BAKE key LYME pie. Bell's palsy (neuro), Arthritis (joints), Kardiac (AV block), Erythema migrans (rash).
Describe 3 stages of Lyme' disease: Stage 1: erythema chronicum migrans, flulike symptoms, lymphadenopathy Stage 2: neurologic cardiac manifestations, Stage 3: chronic monoarthritis, migratory polyarthritis, neuro
What is lyme's disease treated with? Doxycycline
Yaws is caused by ____, syphillus is caused by ____. Treponema petunue = yaws, Treponema pallidum = syphillus
Yaws symptoms, what causes it, where is it found infection of skin, bone and joints that heals with keloids --> severe limb deformities, Treponema pertenue, found in the tropics
Rash of syphillis Secondary syphillis = maculopapular rash on palms and soles
Describe the three stages of syphillis 1. painless chancre 2. disseminated maculopapular rash (palms, soles), condylomata lata, lymphadenopathy; treponema found in both lesions 3. Gumma (disfiguring), aortitis (aneurysm), neurosyphillis (tabes dorsalis), Argyll robertson pupil
Signs of tertiary syphillis broad based ataxia, positive Romberg, Charcot joints, stroke without hypertension
congenital syphillis Saber shins, saddle nose, CN VIII deafness, Hutchinson's teeth
2 tests for syphillis are ____, ____. ____ is the most specific. VDRL, FTA. FTA is the most specific
+ VDRL, FTA = , +VDRL,-FTA = , -VDRL, + FDA = + VDRL, FTA = Active infection, + VDRL, -FTA = false positive, - VDRL, + FTA = Successfully treated; serologic tests are still positive in latent syphillis (occurs after secodary syphillis)
VDRL false positives V = viruses (hepatitis, mono), D=Drugs, R= Rheumatic fever, L= Lupus/leprosy
Cat Scratch: How is it transmitted, bacteria, symptoms Bartonella henselae, cat scratch, presents with increased size regional lymph node, low grade fever
Lyme Disease: Vector, Reservoir, bacteria vector = Tick (Ixodes), Reservoir = deer, mice, bacteria = Borrelia burgdorferi
Brucellosis: How is it transmitted, bacteria, symptoms Dairy products (unpasteurized), animals (cow, pig, goat dog); thick of a vet, animal packer, traveler drinking dairy. Presents with undulant fever that peaks at night
Tularemia: Vector, Reservoir, bacteria, symptoms Vector:Tick, Reservoir = rabbits, deer, bacteria = Francisella tularensis, Presents with black ulcer lesion, lymphadenopathy OR aersol (it produces a spore) with pneumonia
Bubonic plague: Vector, Reservoir, bacteria, Treatment vector: flea, reservoir: rodents, prarie dogs; think of camper in AZ/NM. Yersinia pestis. Treat with aminoglycosides
Cellulitis: How its transmitted, bacteria Transmitted via animal bite, Pasteurella multocida
Gardnerella vaginalis produces ___ discharge, ___ smell and works with ____, an anaerobe. Clue cells are presetn White/gray vaginal discharge, fish smell, Mobiluncus (anaerobe)
Obligate intracellular organisms include ___ and ___. They need both ___ and ___ from cells. Rickettsiae, Chlamydiae. They need both CoA and NAD
Except for ____ and ____ all Rickettsiae cause ___, ___,___. Coxiella and Ehrlichois, Triad: fever, headache and rash
Rickettsia rickettsii: Disease and vector Rocky Mountain Fever, tick
R. typhus:Disease and vector, reservoir Endemic typhus, fleas,rodents
R. prowazekii: Disease and vector, reservoir Epidemic typhus, lice, flying squirrels
Ehrlichia: disease, vector Ehrlichiosis, tick (NO RASH, some inclusion bodies)
Coxiella burnettii: disease and vector Q fever (inhaled aerosols), pnemonia with soaking sweats, abrupt fever; found in milk, tick and cattle
Rash on sole/palms =, rash on trunk = Rash on sole/palms = rickettsiae, trunk = typhus (can get gangrene)
Name all the bugs with rashes on soles/palms CARS(use your palms/soles to drive) = Coxsackie A, Rocky mountain spotted fever, syphillis
Weil-Felix reaction = positive for ___, ____, negative for ___, ____. what is the species thats used to cross react? + = typhus, Rocky mountain spotted fever, - = Q fever, Use proteus vulgaris
Chlamydia are intracellular parasites that cannot make ___. They have 2 forms: ATP. Elementary body, reticulate body
enters via endocytosis, non-replicating, inhibits phagosome fusion, infectious Elementary body
Replicats Reticulate body (initial body)
Chlamydial cell wall lacks Muramic acid and peptidoglycan
Chlamydia trachomatis causes: Reactive arthritis (Reiter's) in 20-40, non-gonoccocal urethritis, PID, conjunctivitis, FHC syndrome, Lymphogranuloma Venerum
Forms of chlamydia that cause Atypical pnemonia C. pneumoniae, C. psittacci
Treatment for Chlamydia Erythromycin, tetracycline
Lymphogranuloma venerum painless papule on genital that migrates to lymph nodes
Fitz-Hugh Curtis Infection of liver capsule with RUQ syndrome
Bacteria that produce atypical pneumonia Legionella, mycoplasma, chlamydia
Coverage for atypical pneumonia macrolides, quinolones, tetracycline
Serotype ABC Africa/Blindness/Chronic infection
L1,L2,L3. will have a positive ___ test Lymphogranuloma, Frei test
Weil-felix test is for ___, Frei test is for___ Weil-felix: rickettsiae, Frei = chlamydia (lymphogranuloma)
Mycoplasma is grown on ___ agar and produces what type of antibodies? Mycoplasma = atypical pneumonia, Eaton's agar, produces IgM cold agglutins
Treat mycoplasma with Tetracycline, erythromycin
Created by: ddecampo



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