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Soil

QuestionAnswer
Which materials make up soil? Composed mainly of weathered rock material and organic matter. The three nonliving components of soil are sand, clay, and silt.
What is the scientific name for soil layers? Scientist call each layer a soil horizon, they characterize each by its texture, mineral, composition, color, and depth.
What are the names and characteristics of the three main soil layers? A horizon: Top Soil, B horizon: Sub Soil, and C horizon: Bed Rock
What are the characteristics of the Top Soil? Consists of insoluble minerals and humus.
What are the characteristics of the Sub Soil? Soluble minerals and clay that have been washed down from the surface along with oxide minerals.
What are the characteristics of the Bed Rock Soil? Consists of larger rock fragments and rests on a solid rock layer known as bedrock.
How does soil form? Begins with the process of weathering, which creates sediment, or fine particles of rock. (Through weathering of parent material.)
Why is soil important? Important natural resource for plants, animal, and people. Important for the water cycle. Some types of soil, like clay are important for industry.
What can we do to help maintain the quality of our soils? Crop Rotation, Being careful with the amount and types of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.