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Chapter 16

Cell Biology

Signal Transduction Conversion of an impulse or stimulus from one physical or chemical form to another; the process by which a cell responds to an Extracellular signal
4 types of cell signaling paracrine, endocrine, autocrine, direct
paracrine Occurs between local cells where quick responses only last a short time
endocrine Occurs between distant cells mediated by hormones that travel to target cells producing a slower long lasting response
autocrine Produced by signaling cells that can bind to the ligand that is released
direct Occurs by transferring signals across the gap junction between neighboring cells
Functions of intracellular signaling pathways Relay, amplify, integrate, distribute
3 classes of cell surface receptors Ion-channel-coupled, G-Protein-coupled, Enzyme-coupled
Ion channel coupled Change the permeability of the plasma membrane to select ions altering the membrane potential and producing an electric current
G Protein Activate membrane bound GTP binding proteins which activate or inhibit an ion channel in the plasma membrane
Enzyme coupled The binding of an Extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side of the membrane
Map-kinase signaling module A set of 3 protein linked kinases that allow the cell to respond to Extracellular signals that stimulate proliferation
Molecular switch Intracellular signaling protein that toggles between an active and inactive state in response to receiving a signal
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) Intracellular signaling molecule generated from ATP in response to hormonal stimulation of cell surface receptors
Calmodulin Ca+ binding protein that modifies the activity of many target proteins in response to changes in Ca+ concentration
Ras One of a large family of small GTP binding proteins that help relay signals from cell surface receptors to the nucleus
RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase) Enzyme coupled receptor in which the intracellular domain has a tyrosine kinase activity that is activated by ligand binding to the receptors Extracellular domain
Created by: Earleyn