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Chapter 20

Cell Biology

TermDefinition
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Complex network of polysaccharide and proteins secreted by cells such as cellulose and collagen that form a structural support
Tissue An assembly of cells and matrix woven together to form a distinctive multicellular fabric with a specific function
Cellulose Structural polysaccharide consisting of long chains of covalently linked glucose units. Provides tensile strength in plant cell walls
Collagen Triple stranded fibrous protein that is a major component of the Extracellular matrix and connective tissues
Proteoglycan Molecule consisting of one or more glycosaminoglycan chains attached to a core protein; regulate the passage of molecules through the Extracellular medium and guide cell migration
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Polysaccharide chain that can form a gel that acts as a space filler in the Extracellular matrix of connective tissues; helps animal tissues resist compression
Stem Cells Relatively undifferentiated self renewing cell that produces daughter cells that can either differentiate into more specialized cell types or can retain the developmental potential of the parent cell
Cloning The process of creating an exact copy of a biological unit from which it was derived
Reproductive cloning The artificial production of genetically identical copies of an animal by for example transplantation of a somatic cell nucleus into an enucleated fertilized egg
Therapeutic Cloning Procedure that uses nuclear transplantation to generate cells for tissue repair and other purposes as opposed to producing whole multicellular individuals
Induced Pluripotent stem cells (IPS) Somatic cell that has been reprogrammed to resemble and behave like a Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell through the artificial introduction of a set of genes encoding particular transcription regulators
Created by: Earleyn