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Medical Surgery Hesi

Hesi review

TermRelated Information
MI-EKG Changes STEMI - increase in the S-T segment indicating a Myocardial Infarction is impending or has already occured.; sudden blood clot forms; tx: CABG, angioplasty, stent and clot busting meds. NONSTEMI - opposite
Mitral Valve/Apex of Heart Bicuspid Valve; located on Left side of Heart, it has two flaps (leaflets) that open to increased pressure filling LA with blood > flows to LV & heart expands (diastole) > closes as heart contracts (systole) forcing blood into the Aorta. 5th ICS
-Normal Sinus Rhythm -No P Wave-No R Wave 60-100bpm; electrical impluse originating in SA Node. Hyperkalemia - "sine wave" - VFib; asystole
Hypopituitarism Rare disorder which your pituitary gland either fails to produce one or more of its hormones or not enough affecting one's growth, blood pressure and reproduction functions -weight loss, emanciation, atrophy of all glands/organs, hair loss and impotence.
Prasugrel - Ecchymosis Common side effect of Blood Thinner used to prevent blood clots.
DVT assessment and action Severe calf pain/tenderness, usually reddened with edema (pitting). Can prevent with early ambulation and/or leg exercises. -action: Measure/Monitor circumference; Doppler Study,U/S, antiembolitic stocking, Lovenox (low molecular- weight heparin); IPC.
Arterial Sheath The radial artery access sheath is used to Gain Arterial Access and Facilitate the Insertion of Catheters or other equipment for Diagnostic and Vascular Interventions.
Atenolol (Tenormin) Beta1 Adrenergic Blocker; relaxes BV; slows HR; increases blood flow and decreases BP; decreases cardiac workload.
BP Variances in the Arms A Big Difference between the Two Readings can give you an Early Warning about increased risk of CVD.
Pitting Edema Observable swelling of body tissues d/t fluid accumulation demonstrated by applying pressure to the swollen area causing an indentation that persists after pressure is released. d/t retention of too much salt (sodium chloride).
Shock - Isotonic Fluids Immediately administration of 2L of Isotonic Sodium Chloride solution or Lactated Ringer's solution in response to shock from blood loss.
Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) cardioversion priority Cardioverson a procedure used to treat cardiac arrhythmias. The most commonly treated is AFib and AFlutter; Electrical "shock" is delivered to the chest to restore the Heart Rhythm to a normal pattern. * Monitor HR and Rhythm; monitor RR d/t pt sedation.
Shock - Nursing Problem Risk of patient becoming septic; monitor vital sign closely! Signs: Elevated Temperature; Bradycardic; Tachypnea; Tachycardia; Decreased LOC.
Lasix outcome in Pediatric patient Is used to reduce edema in both acute and chronic cardiovascular, pulmonary, and kidney diseases. Monitor strict I&O's and electrolytes (potassium especially).
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) anticoagulant protocol *At risk for Respiratory Arrest r/t extension of the clot* Low Molecular-Weight Heparin (Lovenox) is recommended; adm once daily by SubQ injection; it has longer duration of anticoagulation effect; with a fixed dose of LMWH aPTT monitoring not necessary - otherwise, monitor aPTT and heparin levels closely.
Heart Failure (HF) - Cardiac Tamponade (Right -Sided HF) *Pericardiocentesis - Emergency Intervention!!* *HS= Heart Sounds* *CO= Cardiac Output* Fluid accumulation Pericardial Sac; Constriction of Pericardium; Pericarditis. Post Open-Heart; Trauma. Pulsus Paradoxis - systole decrease 10mm with inspiration; Muted HS; decreased CO. Tx: Pericardial Window/Indwelling Pericardial Catheter.
Cirrhosis Alcoholism * Cardiac Cirrhosis* *Congestive Hepatopathy* CHF dominates this disorder; tx is managing underlying HF; Right-sided HF; Sudden and Dramatic Serum Hepatic Transaminase Elevations typically lead to the discovery of this condition.
Zetia - monitor effect An antihyperlipidemic Agent along with a statin therapy; works by reducing the amount of cholesterol or other sterols that your body absorbs from your diet. ***Monitor Hepatic**
Heart Disease Risk Factors Health conditions; your lifestyle; age; family history can increase your risk for heart disease. HTN; High Choleserol and Smoking top three followed by, obesity and salt intake.
Shock - Anaphylactic *Medical Emergency* A widespread and very serious allergic reaction. Symptoms include: dizziness, loss of consciousness, labored breathing, swelling of the tongue and breathing tubes, blueness of the skin, low blood pressure, heart failure, and death.
Thrombolytic - Alcoholism Thrombolytics dissolve dangerous clots (thrombolysis); Alcohol impairs benefit effect of tPA induced thrombolysis after a stroke.
Created by: Angelique434