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A&P Test 4

Ch. 20

TermDefinition
capillaries site where nutrients, wastes, and hormones are exchanged
continuous capillaries tight junction epithelial cells. occurs in most tissues
fenestrated capillaries endothelial cells riddled with holes called filtration pores (fenestrations). occurs in the kidneys and small intestines
sinusoids AKA discontinuous capillaries. irregular, blood-filled spaces with large fenestrations. allows albumin, clotting factors and new blood cells to enter the circualtion. found in bone marrow, liver, and spleen
aneurysm weak point in an artery or wall; forms a athin-walled, bulging sack that may rupture
dissecting aneurysm blood accumulates between the tunics of the artery and separates them; usually because break down of tunica media
conducting arteries aorta, common carotid, iliac arteries (are what kind of arteries?)
distributing (muscular / medium) arteries brachial, femoral, renal, and splenic (are what kind of arteries?)
resistance (small) arteries arterioles - the smallest arteries
metarterioles short vessels that link arterioles to capillaries
tunica interna lines the blood vessel and is exposed to blood
endothelium simple squamos epithelium overlying a basement membrane and a sparse layer of loose connective tissue. secretes chemicals that stimulate vasomotion
tunica media middle layer of a blood vessel that consists of collagen and elastic tissue
tunica externa AKA tunica adventitia. outermost layer of loose connective tissue that often merges with other things
postcapillary venules smallest veins. most leukocytes emigrate from the blood stream through venule walls
muscular venules 1 or 2 layers of smooth muscle in tunica media. have thin tunica externa
medium veins thin tunica media. thick tunica externa. tunica interna forms venous valves
venous sinuses veins with especially thin walls, large lumen, and no smooth muscle.
large veins some smooth muscle in all three tunics. vena cavae, pulmonary veins, internal jugular veins, and renal veins
blood flow the amount of blood flowing through, an organ, tissue or, blood vessel in a given time (mL/min)
perfusion the flow per given volume or mass of tissue in a give time (mL / min / g)
hemodynamics physical principal of blood flow based on pressure and resistance
mean arterial pressure (MAP) 1/3 pulse pressure + diastole
autoregulation ability of a tissue to regulate their own blood supply (local BP control)
vasoactive chemicals substances secreted by platelets, endothelial cells, and perivascular tissue that stimulate vasomotion (local BP control)
reactive hyperemia if blood supply is cut off and restored, flow increases above what is normal (local BP control)
angiogenesis growth of new blood vessels (local BP control)
angiotensin II potent vasoconstrictor
aldosterone promotes sodium and water retention by kidneys
atrial natriuritec peptide (ANP) increases urinary sodium excretion
ADH promotes water retention and raises BP
Created by: meghan.snell81