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Chapter 5-

The Working Cell

What is diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane? Osmosis
What is the passive net movement of ions or molecules down their concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached? Diffusion
what is diffusion with the help of transport proteins? Facilitated diffusion
what is the type of transport described as the movement of ions or molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration without the use of energy? Passive Transport
What determines the rate of diffusion? Steepness of the concentration gradient, temperature, surface area, and the type of molecule
What type of solution is described as when a vacuole loses water, the sytoplasm shrinks and chloroplasts are seen in the center of the cell, or when water leaves the cell? Hypertonic Solution (higher concentration)
What type of solution is described as when the vacuoles fill with water, turgor pressure develops and the chloroplasts are seen next to the cell wall, or when water enters the cell and may cause it to burst? Hypotonic Solution (lower concentration)
What type of transport is described as the process of transport requiring energy because the materials must be moved against their concentration gradient? Active transport
What term is cell secretion best describing? Exocytosis
`What term is cell ingestion best describing? Endocytosis
Which term is cell "eating best describing? Phogocytosis
Which term is cell "drinking" best describing? Pinocytosis
What object is a cell going through energy conversion most like? (one goes through combustion while the cell goes through respiration, but both release a waste product of carbon dioxide and water) A car
What term is best described by the measure of disorder or randomness? Entropy
Which law of thermodynamics is being described? Energy conversions increase the disorder of the universe. Second
Which law of thermodynamics is best being described? energy in the universe is constant. First
Is energy released or taken in in a exergonic reaction? released
Is energy realesed or taken in in a endergonic reaction? take in
What term is best being described by a series of chemical reactions that either build a complex molecule or break down a complex molecule to become simpler? metabolic pathway
What is ATP made of? Triphosphate and ADP
Which process creates ATP from ADP? Phosphorilation
Which process creates ADP from ATP? Hydrolysis
Does an enzyme speed up or slow down a chemical reaction? Speed up
does temperature affect molecule motion? yes
which term is best being described? many enzymes require this nonprotien helper that bind to the active site and function in catalysis. Cofactors
True or false Alveoli make gas exchanges in the lungs faster and more efficient? true
Which type pf inhibitor is best described? It does not enter the active site but still assists the membrane. Noncompetitive inhibitor
Which type of inhibitor is best being described? Reduces an enzyme's activity but also assists it. Competitive inhibitor
Penicillin is a drug that affects beacterial cells and not human cells. How is this possible? Only a certain structure is being targeted.
Created by: elliebrady



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