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# Waves

TermDefinition
wave a rhythmic disturbance that carries energy; transfer energy from one place to another
transverse waves matter moves at right angles to the direction the wave travels (water); source moves up and down, coils move up and down
compressional waves/longitudinal waves matter vibrates in the same direction as the wave (sound wave); source moves left and right, coils move left and right
parts of a wave crest, trough, wavelength, amplitude
wavelength the distance between a point on one wave and the identical point on the next wave
amplitude the greatest distance a wave rises or falls from its rest position (or height of the wave)
rest position the position of the wave before it is disturbed; represented by the dotted line
crest highest point in a transverse wave
trough lowest point in a transverse wave
frequency is a count of the number of waves that pass a given point in one second
Hertz the unit for the frequency of a wave
high frequency shorter wavelength
low frequency longer wavelength
formula for finding velocity (speed) of a wave velocity=wavelength x frequency
period of a wave the amount of time a particle on the wave would take to complete one wavelength
two things needed for sound to be produced a vibration (Tuning forks) and a medium (material) for the vibration to travel through
characteristics of sound waves compressional waves, expand outward in all directions, need a medium to travel (cannot travel through a vacuum)
loudness of sound depends on the amplitude of the wave
decibels unit used to measure volume
pitch how high or low a sound is heard by our ears; depends on how many times the air vibrates in one second
speed of sound depends on the density and elasticity of the medium it is traveling through
sound travels fastest through dense solids with little elasticity
sound travels slowest through gases that are easy to compress
The speed of sound depends on temperature and density
We see different colors because of the wavelength of light that is reflected
white light is a combination of all colors being reflected
black is the absorption of all colors
red absorbs all wavelengths EXCEPT red
radiation the transfer of energy by the Electromagnetic Spectrum
electromagnetic waves are transverse waves, able to carry energy through "empty space", arranged in the spectrum by their different wavelengths
radio waves have the longest wavelength and lowest frequency
infrared radiation is produced by all hot objects
visible light is the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by our eyes
ultraviolet radiation can kill living cells
X rays and gamma rays have the shortest wavelength and highest frequency
This color has the longest wavelength so it blends the least. Red
This color has the shortest wavelength so it blends the most. Violet
concave lens makes objects look smaller
convex lens flipped objects upside down or make objects larger
concave mirror makes the image larger of zoomed in
convex mirror makes the image look smaller or farther away
transparent an object that lets ALL light pass through it.
translucent an object that lets SOME light pass through it
opaque an object that lets NO light pass through it
changes in wave patterns result from hitting a boundary, changing the medium in which they travel, collisions with other waves
when light passes from one type of material to another, 3 things may happen reflection, refraction, diffraction
reflection the bouncing back of a wave when it hits a boundary
refraction the bending of light due to a change in the speed
diffraction the bending of waves around a barrier that blocks their path
lenses a transparent piece of glass or plastic that refracts light
Light passing through a convex lens _______ and _______ closer making an object look larger bends and focuses
Light passing through a concave lens bends and focuses ____________ away making an object look smaller farther
A glass prism will _______________ or bend light. refract
Created by: osterman