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CH 4 & 5 Vocab

Cell Theory 3 essential parts: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism, and cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
Plasma Membrane Covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of the cell. All materials enter or exit through here
Cytoplasm The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all the organelles except the nucleus
Cytosol The part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not membrane bound organelles
Nucleus Control center. Membrane bound organelle that contains a cells DNA
Prokaryotes Organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles (Bacteria & Archaea)
Eukaryotes Organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Organelles Well defined intracellular bodies that perform specific functions for the cell
Tissue A group of similar cells and their products that carry out a specific function
Organs Groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism
Organ System A group of organs that accomplish related tasks
Phospholipid Bilayer Where phospholipids line up so that their heads point outward toward water, results in double layer
Chromosomes Structures in the nucleus made of DNA and protein
Nuclear Envelope Double membrane that surrounds nucleus (made up of two phospholipid bilayers)
Nucleolus Denser area in nucleus. Where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA
Ribosomes Organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Mitochondria Tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) A system of membranous tubes and sacs. functions as a intracellular highway where molecules move from one part of the cell to another
Golgi Apparatus System of flattened, membranous sacs. Adds address labels to proteins to direct them to different parts of the cell
Lysosomes Vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes. Breaks down cell when its time to die
Cytoskeleton A network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol. Gives shape to the cell and acts as a system of internal tracks
Microtubules Hollow tubes made of protein called tubulin. Hold organelles in place
Microfilaments long threads of beadlike protein acting and are linked end to end and wrapped around each other like two trans of rope. Contribute to cell movement
Cilia & Flagella Hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell and assist in movement
Centrioles Consist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope. Organize microtubules during cell division
Cell Wall A rigid layer that lies outside the cells plasma membrane. Allows some stuff to enter or exit (made of cellulose
Central Vacuole large fluid filled organelle that stores water and other materials. Make of my of there plant cells volume (90%)
Plastids Organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain they own DNA
Chloroplasts Use light energy to make carbohydrates from C20 and water
Thylakoids System of flattened membranous sacs, contain chlorophyll
Chlorophyll Green pigment. Absorbs light and captures energy for the cell
Passive Transport Where substances can cross the cell membrane without any input of energy
Diffusion The movement of molecules from a area of higher concentration to lower
Concentration Gradient The difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance
Equilibrium Where the concentration of molecules will be the same throughout the space the molecules occupy
Osmosis Process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area of high concentration to low
Hypotonic When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower then the concentration in the cytosol (cell swollen)
Hypertonic When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher then the concentration in the cytosol (cell shrunk)
Isotonic When the concentrations of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal
Contractile Vacuoles Organelles that remove water
Turgor Pressure The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
Plasmolysis Where the cell shrinks away from the cell walls and turgor pressure is lost
Cytolysis Where water diffuses into the cell causing them to burst
Facilitated Diffusion Process that is used for molecules that cannot readily diffuse through cell membranes
Carrier Proteins Specific proteins that assist molecules across the cell membrane in facilitated diffusion
Ion Channels Membrane proteins. Transport ions from higher to lower concentration
Active Transport The movement of molecules from an area of lower to high concentration. Requires a cell to expand energy
Sodium Potassium Pump Carrier protein. transport ions up their concentration gradients
Endocytosis The process by which cells ingest external fluid and other materials
Vesicle Membrane bound organelle that is digested by lysosomal enzymes
Pinocytosis Involves transport of solutes or fluids
Phagocytosis Movement of large particles or whole cells
Phagocytes Cells that use phagocytosis ton ingest bacteria and viruses that invade the body
Exocytosis The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle
Created by: 15022