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Final Exam Level 1


Mobility definition The ability to move freely, easily, rhythmically, and purposefully in the environment, is an essential part of living.
What are human's base of support? Feet on the ground
Where does a human's line of gravity begin and end? The top of the head, falls between the shoulders, through the trunk, slightly anterior to the sacrum, and between the weight-bearing joints and base of support.
Line of gravity An imaginary vertical line drawn through the body's center of gravity.
Center of gravity The point at which all of the body's mass is centered.
Base of support Foundation on which the body rests.
Extensor muscles Also known as antigravity muscles, carry the major load as they keep the body upright.
Joints are considered...? The functional units of the musculoskeletal system.
Body movement require what four things? Alignment, Joint Mobility, Posture, Balance
What is osteoporosis A condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile.
What causes osteoporosis? Inadequate Calcium and Vitamin D
How does poor nourishment affect mobility? May have muscle weakness and fatigue. Vitamin D deficiency causes bone deformity during growth. Inadequate calcium intake and vitamin D synthesis and intake increase the risk of osteoporosis.
How does obesity affect mobility? Can distort movement and stress joints, adversely affecting posture, balance, and joint health.
Isotonic Exercise Dynamic exercises in which the muscle shortens to contract.
Isometric Exercise Static or setting exercises in which muscles contract without moving the joint (squeezing a towel between the knees)
Isokinetic Exercise Resistive exercises that involve muscle contraction or tension against resistance.
Aerobic Exercise Involves large muscle groups. More oxygen is taken into the body than is used to perform the activity. (Running)
Anaerobic Exercise Used for endurance training. Muscles can't get enough oxygen from blood stream, so anaerobic pathways are used for short bursts of energy. (Weight Lifting, Sprinting)
Musculoskeletal benefits of exercise Size, shape, tone, and strength of muscles (including heart muscle). Increases joint flexibility, stability, and ROM.
How is bone density and strength maintained? With weight-bearing and high-impact movement. This maintains the balance between osteoblasts (builder cells) and osteoclasts (resorption and breakdown cells).
Cardiovascular benefits of exercise Increases cardiac efficiency (HR, output, BP, O2sat, cardiac strength) and reduces stress.
Respiratory benefits of exercise Improved pulmonary function (gas exchange, cerebral perfusion, decreased breathing effort, decreased risk for infection)
Gastrointestinal benefits of exercise Improved appetite and tone, which facilitates peristalsis and relieves constipation.
Metabolic/Endocrine benefits of exercise Elevates metabolism (anabolism and catabolism) and improves caloric use. Weight loss and exercise stabilize blood sugar and make cells more responsive to insulin.
Urinary benefits of exercise Blood flow increases so waste is excreted more effectively. Stagnant urine is avoided.
Immune benefits of exercise Improves lymph drainage. Moderate exercise enhances immunity.
Psychoneuologic benefits of exercise Elevates mood, relieves stress, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. Improves quality of sleep.
Cognitive benefits of exercise Improves cognition (decision-making, problem-solving, paying attention, and planning. Improves mood, learning, and performance)
Spiritual benefits of exercise Improves mind-body-spirit connection (usually with yoga-style exercises) with deep breathing, and contracting and releasing groups of muscles.
Effects of immobility on the cardiovascular system Diminished cardiac reserve. Orthostatic hypotension. Venous stasis and vasodilation. Dependent edema. Thrombus formation (DVT).
Paresis Muscle group that is paralized
Spastic Muscle group that has too much muscle tone
Flaccid Muscle group that has no muscle tone
Effects of immobility on the respiratory system Decreased respiratory movement. Pooling of respiratory secretions. Atelectasis.
Effects of immobility on the musculoskeletal system Disuse osteoporosis. Disuse atrophy (decrease in muscle size). Disuse contractures (permanent shortening of the muscle). Foot and wrist drop. Stiffness and pain in joints that can become ankylosed (permanently immobile).
Effects of immobility on the metabolic system Decreased metabolic rate. Negative nitrogen balance (catabolized muscle releases nitrogen). Anorexia. Negative calcium balance.
Effects of immobility on the urinary system Urinary stasis. Renal calculi. Urinary retention. Urinary infection.
Effects of immobility on the gastrointestinal system Constipation ---> Impaction. Use of the Valsalva maneuver.
Valsalva maneuver Places undue stress on the heart and circulatory system. Client holds breath and strains against a closed glottis, which builds pressure. When pressure is suddenly released, a surge of blood flows to the heart.
Effects of immobility on the integumentary system Reduced skin turgor (shifts in fluids between fluid compartments effect dermis and subQ tissues). Skin breakdown (pressure ulcers).
Proper body mechanics Lift no more than 35 pounds without assistance. Pull rather than push. Pivot to avoid twisting the spine.
Examples of supportive devices Suspension or heel guard boot (prevent foot drop and relieve heel pressure). Foot board. Abduction pillow. Hand roll (made with a washcloth; prevents contractures).
Ways to prevent falls Eliminate clutter, rugs, electrical cords. Be sure call light is accessible. Set bed alarm. Check on patient frequently.
Created by: Jnford15