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Bio Organelles Quiz

parts of a cell (multiple choice quiz)

What is the order of The Hierarchy of Life? 1. chemical level, 2. organelle level, 3. cellular level, 4. tissue level, 5. organ level, 6. system level, and 7. the organism
prokaryotic cells bacterial cells, lack membrane-bound nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles, small, unicellular (single cells), basic cells/have very little cellular organization, single circular chromosome of naked DNA
eukaryotic cells plant, animal, and fungal cells, have a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, large, may exist as single cells or as part of a multicellular organism, more complex/have more structure and internal organization
how do you calculate magnification? measured size of object divided by actual size of object
how do you calculate actual object size? size of the image divided by magnification
chloroplast (plant cell) a specialized plastid containing the green pigment chlorophyll; site for photosynthesis (which uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide to glucose)
cellulose cell wall (plant cell) a semi-rigid structure that lies outside the plasma membrane; it has several roles including protecting the cell and providing shape; many materials pass freely through the cell wall (semipermeable)
plasma membrane (plant cell) located inside the cell wall in plants; it controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell
cytoplasm (plant and animal cell) a watery solution containing dissolved materials, enzymes, and the cell organelles
mitochondrion (plant cell) the cell's energy producers; they use the chemical energy in glucose to make ATP, the cell's usable energy currency
endoplasmic reticulum/ER (plant cell) a network of tubes and flattened sacs continuous with the nuclear membrane; there are two types - rough has ribosomes attached, smooth has no ribosomes (so it appears smooth) -- network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of cell
nuclear pore (plant cell) protein-lined channel in the nuclear envelope that regulates the transportation of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
nuclear membrane (plant cell) membrane surrounding nucleus
nucleus (plant cell) most of a plant cell's DNA is here
ribosomes (plant cell) these small structures make proteins by joining amino acids to create polypeptides
golgi apparatus (plant cell) a structure made up of membranous sacs; it stores, modifies, and packages proteins
amyloplast (plant cell) specialized plastid that makes and stores starch
plastids (plants ONLY) several types of membrane-bound organelles that make and store food and pigments in plant cells
features that can be used to identify a plant cell presence of: cellulose cell wall, chloroplasts and other plastids, large vacuole (often centrally located)
organelle a unique part of a cell that has a specific function; the cell's "organs" and carry out the cell's work
mitochondrion (animal cell) organelles involved in the production of ATP (usable energy)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum/smooth ER (animal cell) its main role is to make lipids and phospholipids
plasma membrane (animal cell) the cell boundary; the membrane is a semi-fluid phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; it separates the cell from its external environment and controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
small vacuole (animal cell) not always present
ribosomes (animal cell) these make proteins; they can be found floating free in the cytoplasm or attached to the surface of rough ER
golgi apparatus (animal cell) the flattened, disc-shaped sacs of it are stacked one on top of each other, very near, and sometimes to connected to, the ER; vesicles bud off from it and transport protein products away
microvilli (animal cell) small finger-like extensions which increase the cell's surface area (not all animal cells have these)
lysosome (animal cell) sac-like organelles containing enzymes that break down foreign material, cell debris, and worn-out organelles
rough endoplasmic reticulum/rough ER (animal cell) these have ribosomes attached to the surface; proteins are made here
nuclear pore (animal cell) this is a hole in the nuclear membrane; it allows molecules to pass between the nucleus and the rest of the cell
nucleus (animal cell) a large organelle containing most of the cell's DNA; within it, is a denser structure called the nucleuous
nucleolus (animal cell) A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell, usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes
centrioles (animal cell) paired cylindrical structures contained within the centrosomes (an organelle that organizes the cell's microtubules); they form the spindle fibers involved in nuclear division; made up of protein microtubules and are always 90 degrees to each other
features that can be used to identify an animal cell no cell wall, often have an irregular shape, no chloroplasts or other plastids, no large vacuoles (if any), they have centrioles (not found in the cells of most plants)
vacuole (plant cell) A cavity within the cytoplasm of a cell, surrounded by a single membrane and containing fluid, food, or metabolic waste
cytoskeleton (plant cell) consists mainly of actin filaments and microtubules and plays an important role in cell movement, shape, growth, division, and differentiation, as well as in the movement of organelles within the cell
vesicle (plant and animal cell) A bubble-like membranous structure that stores and transports cellular products, and digests metabolic wastes within the cell (bud off from golgi apparatus)
protein (product of cell) (animal cell) structural ones maintain cell shape, akin to a skeleton, and compose structural elements in connective tissues like cartilage and bone in vertebrates. Enzymes are another type, and these molecules catalyze the biochemical reactions that occur in cells
membrane-bound organelles (in eukaryotic cells ONLY) organelles protected by a single or double plasma membrane
Created by: ka0624