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Mental Health/Psych


Grief Refers to the subjective emotions and affect that are a normal response to the experience of loss
Grieving (bereavement) Refers to the process by which a person experiences the grief. Not only involves the content of what a person thinks, says and feels, but also the process of how a person thinks, says and feels
Anticipatory Grieving When people facing an iminent loss begin to grapple with the very real possibility of the loss or death in the near future
Mourning Outward expression of grief
Rituals of mourning Having a wake, sitting Shiva, holding religious ceremonies and arranging funerals
Types of losses physiologic loss, safety loss, loss of security and sense of belonging, loss of self-esteem, loss related to self-actualization
Physiologic loss An amputation of a limb, mastectomy or hysterectomy or loss of mobility
Safety loss Loss of a safe environment evident in domestic violence, child abuse or public violence. Feeling of safety shattered when violence occurs in home, on campus or a holy place
Loss of security and a sense of belonging Loss of a loved one affects the need to love and the feeling of being loved. Loss accompanies changes in relationships such as birth, marriage, divorce, illness, and death; a person may lose roles within a family or group
Loss of self-esteem Any change in how a person is valued at work or in relationships or by himself or herself can threaten self-esteem. Death of a loved one, broken relationship, loss of a job, retirement
Loss related to self-actualization External or internal crisis that blocks or inhibits strivings toward fulfillment may threaten personal goals and individual potential. Losses a person will grieve
Kubler-Ross's Five stages of Grieving Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
Denial Shock and disbelief regarding the loss
Anger May be expressed toward God, relatives, friends, or health-care providers
Bargaining Occurs when the person asks God or fate for more time to delay the inevitable loss
Depression Results when awareness of the loss becomes acute
Acceptance Occurs when the person shows evidence of coming to terms with death
Bowlby's Phases of Grieving (Part 1) Experiencing numbness & denying the loss, Emotionally yearning for the lost loved one & protesting the permanence of the loss,
Bowlby's Phases of Grieving (Part 2) Experiencing cognitive disorganization & emotional despair w/ difficulty functioning in the everyday world. Reorganizing & reintegrating the sense of self to pull life back together.
Engel's Stages of Grieving Shock and disbelief, Developing Awareness, Restitution, Resolution of the loss, Recovery
Horowitz's Stages of Loss and Adaptation Outcry, Denial and Intrusion, Working through, Completion
Tasks of Grieving: Rando's Six "R's" Recognize, React, Recollect, Relinquish, Readjust, Reinvest
Worden's Tasks Accepting the reality of the loss, Working through the pain of grief, Adjusting to an environment that has changed because of the loss, Emotionally relocating that which has been lost and moving on with life
Cognitive Responses to Grief The pain that accompanies grieving results from a disturbance in the person's beliefs
Emotional Responses to Grief Anger, sadness and anxiety are the predominant emotional responses to loss
Spiritual Responses to Grief Spirituality is the values belief systems that sustain central components to life and spiritual response to grief
Physiologic Responses to Grief The grieving may complain of insomnia, headaches, impaired appetite, weigh loss, lack of energy, palpitations, indigestion, and changes in immune and endocrine systems
Disenfranchised Grief Grief over a loss that is not or cannot be acknowledged openly, mourned publicly, or supported socially.
Complicated Grieving Occurring when a person is void of emotion, grieves for prolonged periods, or has expressions of grief that seem disproportionate to the event. Emotional responses may be suppressed or obsessively preoccupied with deceased person or lost object
Characteristics of Susceptibility Personalities, emotional states, or situations make some people susceptible to complications during the grief process
Ambivalent attachment at least one partner is unclear about how the couple loves or does not love each other
Dependent attachment one partner relies on the other to provide for his or her needs without necessarily meeting the partner's needs
Insecure attachment usually forms during childhood, especially if a child has learned fear and helplessness
Factors that increase risk for complicated grieving Death of a spouse or child, death of a parent, sudden, unexpected and untimely death, multiple deaths, death by suicide or murder. Sudden and violent losses are more likely to lead to prolonged or complicated grief
Complicated grief: Physiologic reactions impaired immune system, increased adrenocortical activity, increased levels of serum prolactin and growth hormone, psychosomatic disorders, and increased mortality from heart disease
Emotional reactions depression, anxiety or panic disorders, delayed or inhibited grief and chronic grief
Three critical components in assessment (grieving) Adequate perception regarding loss; Adequate Support while grieving for the loss; Adequate Coping Behaviors during the process
Cognitive responses Connected significantly with the intense emotional turmoil that accompanies grieving
Promoting of Coping Behaviors #1 Explore client's perception and meaning of loss, Allow adaptive denial, Encourage or assist client to reach out for support, encourage client to examine patterns of coping in past and present.
Promoting of Coping Behaviors #2 Encourage client to review personal strengths and personal power, Encourage client to care for himself or herself, Offer client food without pressure to eat
Created by: JennG2017