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chapters 6, 7 and 8

autotrophs organisms that use sunlight or form chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make energy
photosynthesis the process of converting light energy into chemical energy that usually takes the form of carbohydrates
heterotrophs animals that get their energy from food or other organisms
biochemical pathway the series of chemical reactions linked by what each organism gets its energy from (picture on page 113)
cellular respiration how the cells use the water, oxygen, and carbon-dioxide compounds created in photosynthesis
light reactions the first stage of photosynthesis and is named because it requires light to happen
pigments compounds that absorb light
chlorophyll several different pigments located in the thylakoid; the most common types are chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B
carotenoids accessory pigments found in the thylakoid that help capture more energy from the light
photosytem the individual clusters of pigment molecules and the proteins in the pigment molecules; there are two types known as photosystem 1 and photosystem 2
electron transport chain molecules in the thylakoid membrane that transfer molecules from one molecule to another
chemiosmosis a crucial part of the light reactions that is the synthesis of ATP
ATP synthaze is an enzyme in the thylakoid membrane that harnesses the energy by making ATP
calvin cycle a series of chemical reactions that are assisted by enzymes and is able to produce a three-carbon sugar
calvin fixation the incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds 3. Three carbon molecules have to enter the calvin cycle for three-carbon sugars that make organic compounds to be produced.
stomata small pores that are usually located in the undersurface of leaves (plants can lose water through these)
C4 pathway an alternative pathway that causes plants to have specific enzymes that change CO2 into four-carbon compounds no matter if the carbon level is low or high.
CAM pathway the plants that use this open their stomata in the night and close them during the day. The CAM plants take in CO2 at night and put it into different compounds to enter the Calvin Cycle.
cellular respiration the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
glycolysis the first stage of cellular respiration where organic compounds are converted into pyruvic acid and it produces a small amount of ATP and NADH (an electron carrier molecule).
aerobic respiration when a large amount of ATP is made by breaking down pyruvic acid (this process requires oxygen).
fermentation an additional pathway to glycolysis that creates NAD+ that occurs when there is no oxygen present.
lactic acid fermentation a type of fermentation that occurs when an enzyme converts pyruvic acid that was made during glycolysis into a three-carbon compound called lactic acid.
alcoholic fermentation a type of fermentation that occurs when pyruvic acid is converted into ethyl alcohol. (Some plants and unicellular organisms go through this process such as yeast.)
chromosomes rod shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
histones proteins that the DNA wraps around to help maintain the shape of the DNA and help it be able to save space for packing
chromatid each half of the chromosome
centromere the center of the chromosome where the two chromatids meet and it holds them together until cell division
chromatin the less tightly coiled DNA-protein
sex chromosomes chromosomes that determine the gender of an organism and they carry other characteristics
autosomes all of the other chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
homologous chromosomes the two copies of each autosome
karyotype a photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human
diploid cells having two sets of chromosomes
haploid cells that have only one set of chromosomes (some examples are sperm and egg cells)
binary fission the division of prokaryotic cells into two different cells
mitosis a type of cell division where the genetic material of the new cell is the same as the parent cell
asexual reproduction the reproduction of offspring from one parent
meiosis the second type of cell division where the chromosome matters are reduced by half and they can join with another haploid cell to become a diploid cell.
gametes haploid reproductive cells
cell cycle the repeating set of events in the life of a cell
interphase the time between cell divisions and there are 3 phases (G1,S,G2)
cytokinesis the division of the cell’s cytoplasm
prophase the first stage of mitosis where the DNA coils into chromosomes and they are copied
spindle fibers fibers made of microtubules that radiate from the centrosomes and prepare the cell for division
metaphase the second stage of mitosis where the spindle fibers move to the center of the cell and attaches to the chromosomes
anaphase the stage where the cell begins to divide by pulling the chromosomes apart and the cell divides
telophase the last stage where the cells have split and the chromosomes become chromatin while organelles form identically in each of the two cells
cleavage furrow when the cytoplasm splits and it separates into two cells
cell plate the plate that will eventually become the cell wall and officially create two cells
cell growth g1 checkpoint the proteins will decide if the cell will divide and if so the cell goes to S phase (where the DNA is copied).
g2 checkpoint the proteins check to see if the DNA has been replicated properly and if so molecular processes begin
mitosis checkpoint if cells pass this point then the cell is done with mitosis and it goes through the cycle again
synapsis the pairing of homologous chromosomes
tetrad each pair of homologous chromosomes are called this
crossing over the process of chromatids breaking off and attaching to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome.
genetic recombination when the cross over occurs and genetic material is shared by passing the new genetic material from generation to generation
independent assortment where homologous chromosomes randomly separate
spermagenosis the production of sperm cells
oogenesis the production of mature egg cells or ova
polar bodies the three products of meiosis
sexual reproduction the production of offspring by meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg
Created by: elizrhys



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