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Bio-Chemistry

Science

QuestionAnswer
Organic compounds. Very complex compounds that contain both the elements carbon and hydrogen.
Types of organic compounds. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
How many covalent bonds can carbon have with other atoms? Four.
Inorganic compounds. Simple compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen.
Examples of inorganic compounds. Water, mineral salts, acids, bases.
*Note: H=Hydrogen, C=Carbon, C followed by a letter does not mean carbon!* :D
What elements are carbohydrates made up of? Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What is the building block of carbohydrates? Glucose (Chemical formula- C6H12O6).
How are carbohydrates shaped? Like a ring.
In carbohydrates, ____________ and ___________ have a ratio of (_____:_____). Hydrogen, oxygen, 2:1.
Examples of carbohydrates and their type. M- Glucose, fructose, galatose. D- Sucrose, maltose, lactose. P- Starch, cellulose, glycogen. (The corresponding ones become each other when synthesized.)
Types of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides.
Dehydration synthesis. Starts small and simple and becomes large and complex, chemical processes by which two molecules are joined to form a larger molecule, water gets removed.
Hydrolysis. Large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules by the addition of water.
Uses of Carbohydrates. ENERGY, make cell structures, can be converted to fats and proteins, stored in the form of starches.
What elements are lipids composed of? Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Examples of lipids. Fats, oils, and waxes.
Building blocks of lipids. Fatty acid and glycerol.
Ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen of a lipid. Greater than 2:1.
Dehydration synthesis of a lipid formula. 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol -------------> 1 lipid +3 water.
Hydrolysis of a lipid formula. 1 lipid + 3 water -----------------> 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol.
Uses of lipids. Store energy, structural compounds of cell membranes, insulation for warmth.
What elements are proteins composed of? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus.
Building blocks of proteins. Amino acid.
Parts of the amino acid structure. Amino group (left), Variable (bottom R), carboxyl group (right).
Dehydration synthesis of a protein formula. Amino acid + amino acid -----------------> dipeptide + water.
What joins the nitrogen and carbon together? A peptide bond.
Hydrolysis of a protein formula. Dipeptide + water --------------------> amino acid + amino acid.
Uses of proteins. Makes cell structure, growth, repair cells, sends signals to cells (receptor proteins), pigments in skin and eyes.
Examples of proteins. Enzymes (catalyze chemical reactions), antibodies (defense against invaders), hormones (chemical messengers).
Formula for dehydration synthesis of carbohydrates. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 -----------------> C12H22011 + H20.
Formula for hydrolysis of carbohydrates. C12H22O11 + H20 -----------------> C6H12O6 + C6H12O6.
What elements do nucleic acids contain? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus.
Examples of nucleic acids. DNA and RNA.
Building block of nucleic acids. Long chain of repeating units known as nucleotide.
Each nucleotide consists of a 5 carbon _________ bonded to a _________ group and a _________ __________. Sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base.
Nitrogenous base. Organic base that contains nitrogen.
What are the nitrogenous base pairing rules for DNA? Adenine to thymine, cytosine to guanine.
Shape of DNA? Double helix (twisted ladder) and double stranded.
Function of DNA. Directs and controls the development and activities of all cells in an organism.
Where is DNA found and created? The nucleus.
What attaches nitrogenous bases to one another? Weak hydrogen bonds.
RNA shape. Single stranded.
What sugar does RNA contain? Ribose.
Base pairs of RNA. Adenine to uracil, guanine to cytosine.
Function of RNA. Assists in protein synthesis.
Three types of RNA. mRNA, tRNA, rRNA.
DNA's sugar. Deoxyribose.
Created by: emarciante9