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bio 11 genetics

bio 11 genetics vocab

TermDefinition
mitosis cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number chromosomes as the parent nucleus
chromosome nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
chromatin he material that chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
somatic cells any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis
apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
sister chromotids two identical copies of chromotids formed by the replication of a single chromosome,
centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
spindle fibre spindle fibers form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell
cell plate a plate develops at the middle of the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that helps in forming the wall between the two new daughter cells
Cleavage furrow A groove that is formed from the cell membrane in a dividing cell as the contractile ring gets tighter.
Meiosis cell division that results in 4 daughter cells each have half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, used in production of gametes and plant spores.
Diploid having two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Haploid having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
crossing-over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a variation of parental characteristics in offspring.
Independent assortment formation of random combinations of chromosomes in meiosis
Homologous Pair Homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs, one comes from each parent cell
Synapsis the fusion of chromosome pairs at the beginning of meiosis.
Gametes haploid male or female cell that unites with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Nondisjunction the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during nuclear division,
Alleles one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that happen by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
locus the position of a gene on a chromosome.
Law of segregation that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
Law of Independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
Dominant allele an allele that shows its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele; thus if A is dominant over a, then AA and Aa have the same phenotype.
Recessive Allele an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical.
Genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Homozygous Allele is the same aa BB you've got a pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trai
heterozygous to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive (Bb)
Trait trait or character is a feature of an organism
Monohybrid cross genetic cross between parents that differ in the alleles they possess for one particular gene, one parent having two dominant alleles and the other two recessives.
One-trait testcross A cross between an individual exhibiting the dominant phenotype of a trait and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that trait in order to determine the genotype of the dominant individual.
Dihybrid Cross describes a mating experiment between two organisms that are identically hybrid for two traits.
Codominant A form of dominance in which the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive.
Created by: 100006992138083