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Meiosis begum bio

Meiosis, sexual reproduction, stem cells

TermDefinition
Gametes special cells used in sexual reproduction
somatic cell all diploid cells that are not gametes
zygote fertilized eggs formed form the joining of the gametes
prophase1 chromatin makes copy of itself & begins to coil up
metaphase 1 homologous pairs of chromosomes line up together at the miidle of the cell
Anaphase 1 homologous chromosomes move to opposite end
telophase 1 spindle fiber disappear & cell divides from cytokinesis
Prophase 2 centriole doubles spindle fiber forms
metaphase 2 chromosomes line in middle
Anaphase 2 Individual chromatids move to opposite ends
Telophase 2 -2 daughter cells divides into 4 new daughter cells -each new daughter cell has 23 chromosomes -this is 1/2 the number of original parent cell
phenotype observable characteristic of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
genotype an organisms allele pairs
haploid cell with half the number of chromosomes (n) as a diploid (2n) cell
fertilization process by which haploid gametes combine , forming a diploid cell with 2n chromosomes , with n chromosomes from the female parent and n chromosomes from the male parent
diploid having two copies of each chromosome (2n)
meiosis reduction division process ,occurring only in reproductive cells , in which on diploid cell produce 4 haploid cells that are not genetically identical
crossing over exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes during propase 1 of meiosis
genetics science of heredity
allele alternative form that a single gene may have for a particular trait
dominant Mendel's name for a specific trait that appeared in the F1 generation
recessive Mendel's name for a specific trait hidden or masked in the F1 generation
homozygous organism with two of the same alleles for a specific trait
heterozygous organism with two of different alleles for a specific trait
law of segregation Mendel's law stating that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis
hybrid organism heterozygous for a specific trait
law of independent assortment Mendel's law stating that a random distribution of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes
genetic recombination new combination of genes produces by crossing over and independent assortment
polyploidy having one or more extra set of all chromosomes
somatic stem cells found throughout the body during development, they multiply to replenish dying cells and replace damage tissue
stem cells unspecialized cells that are characteristically of the same family type
Created by: mackezie Neal