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Animal Nutrition T3

Animal Science

What are some different classes of feedstuffs forages, concentrates, liquid feeds
What are some of examples of forages? grasses, legumes, silage/hay, crop residues(roughages)
What are some examples of concentrates? energy feeds, protein feeds
What are nutritional concerns with forages? cause and symptoms of fescue toxicosis; pasture bloat
What is the trend for U.S. Milk Production milk production increasing
How many days before would you "dry" a cow 60 days
When are newborn calves given colostrum? within 6 hours of life
How long is a cow's gestation in a dairy herd? 283 days
What is the typical growing daily gain for newborn calves? 40-70 kg
For milk replacers used in pre-weaned calves, what does a 28:20 milk replacer indicate? It indicates there is 28% protein to 20% fat on a DM basis
What does a 20:20 milk replacer indicate? It indicates there is 20% protein to 20% fat on a DM basis
What is a calf starter as it relates to pre-weaned calves? it contains high energy and 18-22% CP
When is good quality hay given to calves after 60 days of age or after weaning
What is a good rule to follow when changing feed diets for post-weaned calves whenever you are changing feed diets, keep one ingredient in the feed the same as the previous diet
What diet should replacement heifers be fed? high forage diets
What are the requirements for dry cows (far-off)? slow-down diet, high forage diets, small amount concentrates
Why is fiber in the diet good for ruminants? it stimulates rumination and buffers pH in the rumen to prevent acidosis
What are the requirements for dry cows (close-up)? transition diet should have 13-14% CP, 33-36% NDF, and <38% NFC
Why should legumes be avoided when feeding dry cows(close-up) so that hypocalcemia does not occur
What are the nutrient requirements for lactating cows (fresh)? low DM intake, >16% CP, 33-36% NDF, <38% NFC, and supplemental fat
What are the requirements for lactating cows in early lactation? Higher DM intake than (fresh) lactation cows; ~16% CP, 28-30% NDF, and ~40% NFC, and supplemental fat
What are the requirements for lactating cows in late lactation? 16% CP or less, 30-33% NDF
What are causes of acidosis? low NDF, high NFC and starch, fermentability or starch, and management
What are signs of acidosis? milk fat depression, manure, laminitis and hoof problems
What can be done to prevent acidosis? giving physically effective fiber(stimulates chewing activity), increase dietary NDF, and buffers(sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide)
What can be done to prevent retained placenta? giving antioxidants, such as selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene
What can be done to prevent hypocalcemia? giving Ca supplements, stimulate Ca metabolism
What are sources of anionic salts? Non-commercial products(HCl, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate) and commercial products
What does it mean if a cow is close up? the cow is getting close to calving date
What does it mean if a cow is far off? the cow is far from calving date
What are ways feed management is used to maximize production? feed mixers, feed troughs
What must be on a feed tag? net weight, product name and brand name, drugs, name and addresses of manufacturers or distributor
Guaranteed Analysis Min % CP, equivalent protein from NPN(non-protein nitrogen), min % crude fat, max % crude fiber, and minerals
What 2 things determine nutrient supply? nutrient intake(quantity of nutrients consumed), and type of feed given
What are factors that affect nutrient requirements? body weight, stage of production, level of milk production, BCS, age, breed, and environment(mud, temp, wind speed)
How does poultry digestive tract differ from other monogastrics? poultry have a crop(stores feed), gizzard(mechanical digestion), and proventriculus(chemical digestion)
How do nutrient requirements and dietary nutrient density differ by class of bird, age, and dry matter intake? nutrient requirements differ in that as the bird matures, the requirements slightly decrease; however metabolizable energy still increases due to energy needed for maintenance; as feed intake inc, concentration dec since bigger birds consume more feed
How is gross energy system utilized by the poultry industry? since chickens can't use digestible energy that well, the chicken's energy comes from metabolizable energy and net energy(since there's no excess loss from ME to net energy)
Primary feeds used by poultry industry grains, oils, vitamins and minerals, byproduct meals(not produced for animal production but they're used by animal production)
Relative differences in feed efficiency in poultry industry all diets are pelleted to increase feed efficiency; pellets are also crumbled so that smaller birds can eat feed; poultry have better feed conversion ratio(FCR) than livestock
Considerations for broiler nutrition 4 to 7 weeks to market; 20 weeks to maturity; microflora not set until 10 days; enzyme production not maximized until 2 weeks
Considerations for layer nutrition mature birds --> 18 to 110 weeks; can handle more complex diets; little growth; have very high Ca requirement for egg production(shell)
Considerations for turkey nutrition faster initial growth than broilers; higher amino acid (protein) requirements; higher P and Ca requirements(Ca used in nervous syst for cell signaling and P used in ATP for energy)
Anti-nutritional concerns with soybean meal soybean contains trypsin inhibitors(which inhibit trypsin) causing less egg production along with decreasing many other processes
What is the goal in beef nutrition? To keep the beef herd on track
What feedstuffs are beef cow rations based on? forages(pasture, corn silage, hays, crop residue)
How does utilization of available feedstuffs change during the year? supplements are given to cows when forages are not growing as much and there is spring calving involved
How does profitability of feed delivery systems change with herd size? TMR costs go down as the herd size grows so beef operation is more profitable
Body condition score indicator of nutritional status; BCS of 5 and 6 is ideal
How are replacement heifers managed? given forages, supplemental energy and protein, and minerals and vitamins free choice
How are feeder cattle managed? fed to gain 0.5 - 1.5 lb/day; they go to feedlot at 600-750 lbs
Where is the bulk of the feedlot industry located? Northern and South Plains
Considerations for different feedstuffs used corn harvested at 25-30% moisture and stored in oxygen limiting environment; roughages are expensive to produce, there are feeding & storage losses, and little energy is gained
How is feedlot acidosis and pattern of feed intake related?
Feed additives pros and cons pros-->de-wormers can be administered in feed to prevent parasites and increases feed efficiency; con-->suppresses estrus
Antibiotics Aureomycin, Terramycin, Tylan(tylosin)
Ionophores causes cattle to consume smaller, more frequent meals, decreased variation in intake(reduced risk of bloat and reduces acute acidosis)
Implants Estrogenic(increased growth hormone levels, appetite, and protein deposition);Androgenic(stimulate protein retention);help increase ADG and feed efficiency
How do nutrient requirements change throughout animal's life cycle? newborns get nutrients from mother's milk; eats more drier, more varied less digestible diet after weaning; nutrient needs go down with age
types of feed processing heat, mechanical, extracting, and pelleting
What is purpose of feed additives? to enhance taste, appearance, texture, safety, and marketing
How to formulate diet involves balancing the ration; matching chemical needs of animal with chemical content of food available
Who regulates feed processing? FDA and AAFCO
Dog's life cycle nutrition newborn puppies need colostrum from mother, then can get moist puppy food after 3-4 weeks, then puppies can eventually eat dry food; growing dogs need a lot of energy and protein
How do cats being nutritional carnivores make them different than other species? they have a greater need for protein intake; they need more taurine(amino acid) than other animals
Life cycle nutrition for cats kittens start out needing colostrum from mother; then they should be introduced to solid food mixed w/water ~4 weeks of age(kitten chow); metabolic rate inc as BW inc during female reproduction
Nutritional considerations for birds don't feed fruits to birds; require high amount of protein(rapid bone growth); need a greater amount/BW of essential fatty acids
Special nutritional considerations of fish since fish are ectotherms(same body temp as environment)they require less energy; require 30-40% protein in diets because of fast metabolism
Nutritional considerations of reptiles reptiles can be susceptible to vitamin A deficiency; Ca and vitamin D3 deficiencies can cause metabolic bone disease; need a commercial mix w/ at least 30-40% protein
Swine gestation length 114 days
Swine weaning age 21 days
Swine slaughter age ~5 months
How have volatile feed prices affected the swine industry? has made it more costly to purchase feed because the cost of feedstuff doubled in the past decade
How do nutrient requirements and diet type change with the swine life cycle? pre-weaning piglets need milk for 1-2 weeks and given creep feed(high in energy, protein, milk products),growing pigs need corn-soy diet with ~18% CP; finishing pigs need corn-soy diet with 14% CP
Created by: David55900



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