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Bio Chapter 9

TermDefinition
Genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
Heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
Trait a genetically determined characteristic
Pollination the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures (the anthers) to the tip of a female reproductive structure (the pistil) of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms
Self-Pollination the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant
Cross- Pollination a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
True- Breeding describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait
P Generation parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 Generation the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F2 Generation the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
Dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
Recessive in genetics, describes an allele that is expressed only when no dominant allele is present in an individual
Law of Segregation Mende's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
Law of Independent Assortment the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Molecular Genetics the study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes
Allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
 

 



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