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Cellular Respiration

Biology

QuestionAnswer
What is the equation for cellular respiration? C6 H12 O6 +6 O2 = ~38 ATP + 6 CO2 + 6 H20
How does this equation compare to that of photosynthesis? Instead of light energy it is ATP & the equation is flipped to do the reverse.
What is the first step to cellular respiration? Glycolysis
What is the second step to cellular respiration? Krebs Cycle / Citric Acid
What is the last step to cellular respiration? Oxidative Phosphorylation
What does glycolysis mean? Splitting of Sugar
How many steps are there in the entire process of glycolysis? 10
What do we call the first half of the steps of glycolysis? Energy Investment Phase
What do we call the second half of the steps of glycolysis? Energy Payoff Phase
What molecule does glycolysis begin with? Glucose
What does glycolysis end with? 2 Pyruvate
How many ATP are produced in glycolysis? 4
How many ATP are used in glycolysis? 2
What is the net gain of ATP in glycolysis? 2
How many NADH are produced in glycolysis? 2
What is NADH used for? To carry electrons to ETC
If oxygen is present, what will pyruvate turn into? Acetyl CoA
What are the products given off when pyruvate turns into this molecule and where do these products go? Co2 and NADH is sent to the ECT (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
How many steps are there in the Kreb's cycle? 8
How many ATP are given off in the Kreb's cycle for each Pyruvate that you begin with? 1
How many total ATP are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 2
How many NADH are given off in the Kreb's cycle for each Pyruvate that you begin with? 3
How many total NADH are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 6
How many FADH2 are given off in the Kreb's cycle for each Pyruvate that you begin with? 1
How many total FADH2 are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 2
How many CO2 are given off in the Kreb's cycle for each Pyruvate that you begin with? 2
How many total CO2 are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 4
Where does all the CO2 go? It is released into the atmosphere
What happens to all the NADH and the FADH2? Sent to ETC
Do you get more energy out of NADH or FADH2? NADH
Where is the Kreb's cycle located? In the mitochondrial matrix
Where does glycolysis occur? In the cytoplasm (outside of mitochondria)
Where is the electron transport chain located? Inner mitochondrial membrane
Where are the H+ ions pumped to? out of the matrix, into the inner mitochondrial membrane
Where do the H+ ions diffuse to and what do they diffuse through? to the matrix, through the ATP synthase
What is chemiosmosis? Links the ETC to the ATP synthase (Movement of H+ ions do this)
What is the name of the enzyme that makes ATP? ATP synthase
What is the purpose of the electron transport chain? to pump the H+ ions to create a gradient (inner membrane space)
How many ATP are produced by the electron transport chain for each molecule of glucose? ~34 ATP
How many total ATP are produced by cellular respiration? ~38 ATP
What is substrate-level phosphorylation? When an enzyme transfers a phosphate from a substrate to ATP - Using chemical reactions (Kreb's Cycle).
What is oxidative phosphorylation? Using ETC to create ATP
What do we call it when oxygen is present? Aerobic
What do we call it when oxygen is absent? Anaerobic
What is the purpose of oxygen in cellular respiration? Catch e´ at the end of ETC and to combine it with H+
How is water produced and what happens to the water after it is made? The O2 combines with the H+ to create H20, it is reabsorbed back into the body
If oxygen is not present, what is the alternative way to make ATP? Fermentation
What are the two types of fermentation? Alcohol Fermentation & Lactic Acid Fermentation
What type of fermentation do we do? Lactic Acid Fermentation
What type of fermentation do yeast cells do? Alcohol Fermentation
How are the two types of fermentation different? Lactic Acid Fermentation lets out - ATP + Lactic Acid Alcohol Fermentation lets out - 3 Co2 + Ethanol + ATP
Why does it hurt after we work out for the first time? Lactic acid is created because of the low O2 levels which causes fermentation to try & create ATP which creates lactic acid.
Why do we breathe harder after a workout? Trying to restart the cycles by taking more O2 in (Kreb's Cycle & ETC)
Why does bread rise when baked? Yeast, that is in bread, eats the carbohydrates and sugars and are doing fermentation which lets out Co2 making the bread rise. Alcohol is burned during baking.
What are the three steps of cellular respiration? Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle), ETC (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
What are the two steps of aerobic respiration? Kreb's Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle), ETC (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
Why did early life only use glycolysis for energy? There was no O2 in the atmosphere and Prokaryotes did not have a mitochondria, or other organelles.
How did we progress from only using glycolysis to using aerobic respiration? Cells were engulfing (taking in) other cells (mitochondria) to become more complex. The plants developed and replaced the Co2 with O2.
Created by: Elise.Postma
 

 



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