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Integument

QuestionAnswer
What are the 6 functions of the skin Protection, production, thermoregulation, communication, sensory function, storage
How does the protection function work The skin acts as a barrier between internal and external environment such as water, toxins, trauma, UV light and microorganisms
How is oil produced Through sebaceous glands. It forms a thin water repellent layer over the skin. It gives a sheen to the coat and helps to control bacteria
How is sweat produced Comes from sudoriferous glands found in foot and nose pads
How is vitamins D produced UV light acts on a precursors chemical in the skin that gets converted to vitamin D3 and absorbed into the bloodstream. This vitamin is then converted by the liver into a compound used by the kidneys to make calcitrol for calcium absorption
How are pheromones produced Produced by specialised glands. They have a role in communication such as territory marking
What do mammary glands produce They are modified sweat glands that produce milk
What do anal glands sacs produce Produce a secretion with a smell used for territory marking
What are ceruminious glands Modified sebaceous glands that secrete cerumen as a protective wax to line the ear canal
What do nerve receptors in the skin respond to Temperature, touch, pain, itchiness, pressure
Where do nerve fibres travel to and form From receptors to the CNS
How is storage used in skin Adipose tissue acts as an energy store and thermal insulation
What are the five ways thermoregulation is used 1. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation. 2. Erection of hair trapping hair trapping heat 3. Subcutaneous fat 4. Hair coat 5. Sweat
How is communication used in the skin Specialise glands in the skin produce pheromones for intra-specific communication
What are the three layers of the skin Epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
Describe the epidermis It is the outermost layer of the skin. It is composed of stratified squamous epithelium. Cells are constantly being produced. There are no blood vessels (avascular). Received nutrients from the dermis. Has a high content of keratin
What are the four layers of the epidermis Stratum basale, stratum granulosum, stratum luciderm, stratum Corneum
Describe stratum basale Single layer of cells that divide rapidly by mitosis. Has melanocytes that contain granules of melanin pigment
Describe stratum granulosum Cells are flattened and keratinisation begins
What is Keratinisation Making keratin
What is stratum luciderm Cells lose their nucleus
What is stratum corneum Most superficial layer. The cells have no nuclei and are fully keratinised and are flattened. They are known as squames
Describe the dermis Carries blood vessels and nerve fibres. It is composed of dense connective tissue and collagen and elastic fibres
What is in the dermis Hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Describe the hypodermis Also known as subcuticular layer. Is a layer of loose connective tissue and fat. Has elastic fibres that give the skin stretch
What is a guard hair Hair which is larger and stiffer than the other hairs. Only one per follicle
What are under hairs The smaller softer hairs in the bundles
What is vibrissae Long sensory hairs. Eg. Whiskers
What are supercillary hairs Found immediately above the eyelids
What are submental hairs Larger tufty hairs Eg. Eyebrows
How much hair is produced per week 1mm
Growth of hair is controlled by Environment, nutrition and hormones
Describe what hair is A keratinised structure covering surface of dog and cat
What is the hair shaft The part of the hair that can be seen from the skin
What is the hair root The part that lies within the skin
What is the hair follicle Where hair grows and develops in the epidermal cells
Describe the sabaceous glands around the hair follicles Secrete sebum that forms a water repellant layer over the skin surface
What do blood vessels do in the dermis Supplies blood to the arrector pills muscle, nerves and tissues around the hair follicle
What does the arrector pilli muscle Stands hair erect
What is the hair bulb In the dermis where epidermal thickening covers the papilla which forms a bulb
What is the papilla The hair cone in the dermis
How is hair formed Hair is formed in the epidermal tissue that extends to form a hair papilla. The hair grows, destroying the cells and leaving a hair follicle for the hair to grow through called the hair shaft
What are the three cycles of hair growth Anagen, catgen and telogen
What is anagen The period of active growth
What is catagen Transitional period
What is telogen Resting period where Hair remains in follicle until shed
Describe wool hairs Insulating shorter, softer hairs beneath the topcoat. They trap air to keep the body warm. They grow from secondary hair follicles that surround the primary follicle
How are vibrassae sensory Transmit information about environment to the brain
Describe the footpads The skin is keratinised an thick. The dog had conical papillae that are worn down on hard surfaces. They have a thickened dermis that contain fat tissue. They have a digital cushion that that acts as a shock absorber
Describe the claws They are modified epidermal structures and form the third phalanx where they cover the ungual process. The have lots of keratin. The tissue is referred to as a horn
What is the coronary border Skin folds over the claw
What is the skin border Clawfold
How do dog and cat claws differ Cats can retract their claws. Cats have narrower claws
What is the rhinarium The nose pad
Describe rhinarium Thick, keratinised and hairless. Has a unique print
What are tail glands Found on dorsal surface near the tail base. They secrete and oily substance
What are circum anal glands Form a ring around the anus where the ducts drain into the ducts of modified sweat glands
What are mammarh glands Modified sweat glands that have glandular tissue lined with secretory epithelium. Secretions drain through teat sinuses. Open at teat orifices
What is lactation Secretion of milk by mammary glands
What is colostrum Thick yellow secretion in mammary glands several weeks before and one week after pasturation (pregnancy). Rich in antibiodies
How much hair does the scrotum have Not much as the semen has to be at a low temperature
When do domesticated animals shed All year round
What are mysticials Vibrissae
What are the centre of the sweat pads called Metacarpal/metatarsal pads
What do dogs and cats have known as a stopper pad Carpal pad
What are dewclaws used for Nothing now
What does the unique print of the nose reflect The pattern of the dermal papillae
How to sudoriferous glands work They open into the hair follicle or skin surface and the sweat evaporates and causes cooling of the body and also contains some waste
Where are anal glands found At the opening at either side of the anus where the terminal end of the digestive tubes join the skin
Created by: kiahgoldie