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# Fundamentals Final

### SPC Fundamentals Unit 1-10 Final Exam Review

Who discovered Oxygen (O2)? Joseph Priestly
Who discovered Carbon Dioxide (CO2)? Joseph Black
Who is the "Father of Inhalation Therapy? Thomas Beddoes
Who is the professional organization of RRT? AARC
Who is responsible for testing and credentialing? NBRC
Who is responsible for school program accreditation? CoARC
What are the 4 main service areas RRT? 1. General Therapeutics 2. Critical Care 3. Emergency Care 4. Diagnostics
What are the 3 Temperature scales? 1. Fahrenheit 2. Celsius 3. Kelvin
Covert K to C you do what? K-273
Covert C to K you do what? C+273
Convert C to F you do what? (C x 1.8)+32
Convert F to C you do what? (F-32)/1.8
Formula for Relative Humidity? (Content/Capacity)x100 or (Absolute Humidity/Max. Absolute Humidity)x100
Normal Barometric Pressure at Sea Level? 1034g/cm2 or 14.7psi
Convert cmH2O to mmHg cmH2O/1.36=mmHg
Convert mmHg to cmH2O mmHg x 1.36=mmHg
Convert mmHg to psi (lbs/in2) (mmHg/760) x 14.7=psi
Convert mmHg to g/cm^2 (mmHg/760) x 1034=g/cm^2
Definition of Daltons Law? The total pressure of a gas is the sum total of the pressures of the individual gases.
What is the Concentration of Nitrogen (N2)? 78.08% or .78 for calculations
What is the Concentration of Oxygen (O2)? 20.95% or .2095 or .21 for calculations
What is the concentration of Argon (Ar)? 0.93% or .0093 for calculations
What is the concentration for Carbon Dioxide (CO2)? 0.03% or .0003 for calculations
What is the water vapor pressure? 47mmHg
STPD at 0 degrees Celsius is what pressure? 760mmHg or 760 Torr
BTPS at 37 degrees Celsius is what pressure? 760mmHg or 760 Torr with water at 47mmHg making the total pressure at 713mmHg
Define Boyles Law At a set T(Temperature), as P (Pressure) increases, V(Volume) decreases. P and V are inversely related.
Example of Boyles Law P1V1=P2V2
Way to remember Boyles Law is constant Temperature? If you raise the temperature it may Boil (Boyle)
Define Charles Law At a set P(Pressure), as T(temperature) increases, V(volume) increases. T and V are directly proportional.
Example of Charles Law V1/T1=V2/T2
Way to remember Boyles Law is constant Pressure? Charlie Sheen loves pussy
Define Gay Lussacs Law At a set V(Volume), as P(pressure) increases, T(temperature) increases. P and T are directly proportional.
Example of Gay Lussacs Law P1/T1=P2/T2
Way to remember Gay Lussacs Law is constant Volume? Gays prefer a dick with volume
Combined Gas Law Equation P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
T/F when using the Combined Gas Law Temperature should always be converted to Kelvin? True
Grahams Law Inversely Proportional to the square root of the Gases GMW (gram molecular weight)
Henrys Law Directly proportional to partial pressure
What are the 3 functions of the nose? 1. Warm 2. Filter 3. Humidify
What are the 3 regions of the nasal cavity? 1. Vestibular 2. Olfactory 3. Respiratory
What are the 3 areas of the Vestibular Region? 1. Alae 2. Vibrissae 3. Septum
What is the area or areas of the Respiratory Region? 1. Conchae (Superior/Middle/Inferior)
What are the 3 areas of the Pharyngeal? 1. Nasopharynx 2. Oropharynx 3. Hypopharynx/Laryngopharynx
Hypopharynx is also known as? Laryngopharynx
What are the 3 major cartilages of the Laryngeal? 1. Epiglottis 2. Thyroid 3. Cricoid
What is the space between the vocal cords called? Glottis
The trachea has how many C-shaped cartilages? 16-20
How long is the trachea? 12cm
What is the diameter of the trachea? 2-2.5cm in diameter
The trachea bifurcates where to the R & L bronchi? At the Carina
How many lobes in the right lung? 3
How many lobes in the left lung? 2
How many bronchi in the right lung? 10
How many bronchi in the left lung? 8
How many bronchioles in both lungs? Thousands
Pulmonary Lobule is also called what? Acinus
List the 4 parts of respiratory unit (Acinus)? Respiratory Bronchioles/Alveolar Ducts/Alveolar Sacs/Alveoli
What are the 2 pleura of the lungs? 1. Visceral (Inner) 2. Parietal (Outer)
What is the major muscle for respiration? Diaphragm or R & L hemi diaphragms
What are the 3 accessory muscles for Inspiration? 1. Scalenes 2. Sternocleidomastoid 3. Pectoralis Major
What are the 4 accessory muscles for Expiratory? 1. Rectus Abdominus 2. Transverse Abdominus 3. External Oblique 4. Internal Oblique
Minute Ventilation is expressed as what? (VE)
Minute Ventilation consists of what? VT (Tidal Volume) & f (frequency or rate)
What is the equation for Minute Volume (VE) VT x f = VE
Deadspace is what? Ventilation w/o Perfusion
Alveolar Ventilation is expressed as what? (VA)
What is the equation for Alveolar Ventilation? (VT (Tidal Volume)-VD (Deadspace)) x f (Frequency) (VT-VD) x f
Frequency is expressed as what? (f)
Deadspace is noted with what? Pulmonary Emboli
Pulmonary Shunt is what? Perfusion w/o Ventilation
Pulmonary Shunt is noted with what? Pneumonia
What is Apnea? No respiration
What is Dyspnea? Short of Breath (S.O.B.)
What is Eupnea? Normal Breathing
Hyperventilation means low.... CO2 <35mmHg
Hypoventilation means high... CO2 >45mmHg
What is Orthopnea? Can breath only in an upright or sitting position
What is Hyperpnea? Tidal Volume > 10ml/Kg
What is Hypopnea? Tidal Volume <5ml/Kg
What is Bradypnea? Breathing frequency <10/min
What is Tachypnea? Breathing frequency >20/min
What are the 3 layers of the heart? 1. Epicardium (visceral pericardium) 2. Myocardium (muscle) 3. Endocardium (squamous epithelium lines the chambers of the blood vessels)
What are the 3 parts of the Pericardium? 1. Fibrous 2. Parietal 3. Visceral
P wave is what? Atrial Depolarization
QRS wave is what? Ventricular Depolarization
T wave is what? Ventricular Repolarization
What are the normal values for Arterial Blood? 1. pH is 7.40 2. O2 is 95-100 3. CO2 is 40 4. SO2 is 97%
What are the normal values for Venous Blood? 1. pH is 7.37 2. O2 is 40 3. CO2 is 46 4. SO2 75%
Oxygen Content is what? The amount of O2 in 100ml of blood
1 gram Hemoglobin can carry how much O2? 1.34ml
What is the normal Hb (Hemoglobin) levels? 15 grams per dl (Deciliter)
What is the normal O2 saturation of Hb (Hemoglobin) (SO2) 97%
What is the equation for the mlO2/dL? 1.34ml/g x 15g/dL x .97 = 19.50mlO2/dL
What is the solubility coefficient for O2? .003 mlO2/dL
What is the Dissolved Oxygen Equation? .003mlO2/dL x PaO2
How do you find CaO2? You add the answer for the Oxygen Content + Dissolved O2 to get CaO2
What is the range for Mild Hypoxemia? 60-80mmHg
What is the range for Moderate Hypoxemia? 50-60mmHg
What is the range for Severe Hypoxemia? <50mmHg
What is the normal range for PaO2? 80-100mmHg
What are some causes of Respiratory Acidosis? Obesisty/Kyphoscoliosis/Anesthesia/Sedative Drugs/Narcotic analgesics/COPD/Polio
What are some causes of Respiratory Alkalosis? Anxiety/Fever/Stimulant Drugs/Pain/Acute Asthma/Hypobarism
What are some causes of Metabolic Acidosis? Diarrhea/Diabetic ketoacidosis/Lactic acidosis/drug or chemical induced
What are some causes of Metabolic Alkalosis? Severe vomiting/corticosteroids/diuretic therapy/hypochloremia/nasogastric suction
What is the density of O2? 1.43g/L
What is the boiling point for O2? -183 degrees C & -297 degrees F
1cuft of LIQUID O2 converts to how much gaseous O2? 860cuft
1cuft of gaseous O2 converts to how many liters of O2? 28.3L
How much cubic feet and liters are in the E-cylinder? 22cuft & 623L
How much cubit feet and liters are in the H-cylinder? 244cuft & 6905L
What does NFPA stand for? National Fire Protection Agency
What does the NFPA do? Regulates the storage and handling of cylinders, as well as central-supply gas and piping systems
What does DOT stand for? Department of Transportation
What does the DOT do? Regulates cylinder construction, testing, and transport
What does CGA stand for? Compressed Gas Association
What does CGA do? Sets all safety standards for ASSS, DISS, & PISS
What does FDA stand for? Sets medical gas purity standard
Downstream resistance of a Bourdon Gauge causes the gauge to read what? Inaccurately High
Bourdon Gauge is used in conjunction with what? A Regulator
T/F Gravity effects operation of the Bourdon Gauge? False
What is the duration of flow equation? (PSI x factor)/flow Factor is .28 for E-cylinder and 3.14 for H-cylinder
What is the cylinder factor for E-cylinder? .28
What is the cylinder factor for H-cylinder? 3.14
How much does a bulk liquid container hold? 20,000cuft of O2
What is the temperature of a bulk liquid O2 system? <-118.8 degrees C
1lb of Liquid O2 converts to how many liters of gas? 344L
Which compound is in an O2 concentrator? Zeolite
What does zeolite absorb? N2/H2O/CO2
Portable O2 concentrators deliver how much FIO2 >.30 FIO2
What is the Alveolar Air Equation? FIO2(PB-PH2O)-PaCO2/.08
If FIO2 is greater than .60 you do what? Eliminate the /0.8
Absorption Atelectasis is what? With high FIO2 >.50 may cause Nitrogen washout of Alveolar gas and Nitrogen is inert
ROP stands for what? Retinopathy of Prematurity
ROP is most common in who? Infants
What are the 3 goals of O2 Therapy? 1. Treat Hypoxemia 2. Reduce WOB (work of breathing) 3. Reduce myocardial workload
What are the documented indications of Hypoxemia? PaO2 < 60mmHg & SaO2 <90%
What are the suspected indications of Hypoxemia? Acute M/I (Myocardial Infraction) & Severe Trauma
What are the 5 clinical manifestations of Hypoxemia? 1. Tachycardia (rate of the heart) 2. Tachypnea (rate of breathing) 3. Cyanosis 4. Restlessness/Confusion 5. Pulmonary Hypertension
What is Responsive Hypoxia? What a patient responds to O2 with a significant increase in PaO2 and FIO2. Simply due to ventilation/perfusion mismatch. High or low O2 device can be used
What is Refractory Hypoxia? What the patient does not respond to O2 due to shunting. PEEP or CPAP is needed
What are the 4 variables of low flow devices? 1. Respiratory Rate 2. Tidal Volume 5. Inspiratory Flow 4. Ventilatory Pattern
What devices are High Flow Systems? AEM or Air Entrainment Nebulizers <.40 FIO2
How to calculate the Air:O2 ratio? (100%-%used)/(%used-20)
What is the Air:O2 ration for a 40% AEM? 100-40=60 then 40-20=20 then finally 60/20 = 3:1
How to calculate total flow? Add ratio together then multiply by the given L/m Example with 8L/m (3:1=4 then 8x4=32L/m which is total flow)
Oxidation of the O2 Analyzer is? Electron loss at the Anode
Reduction of the O2 Analyzer is? Electron gain at the Cathode
Polorgraphic Analyzer is what type of O2 analyzer? Electrochemical with 0.6 volt charge applied to anode
Galvanic Fuel Cell is what type of O2 analyzer? Electrochemical with no voltage needed
Polorgraphic Analyzers have what color anode and cathode? Silver Anode & Platinum Cathode
Galvanic Analyzers have what color anode and cathode? Lead Anode & Gold Cathode
What are the response time of both Polorgraphic and Galvanic analyzers? Polorgraphic is <30sec & Galvanic is up to 60sec
What is the density of Heliox 80/20? 0.43g/L
What is the density of Heliox 70/30? 0.55g/L
T/F Heliox mixtures diffuse faster than O2 or Air? True
What law has to do with diffusion inversely proportional to square root of GMW? Grahams Law
Pulse Oximeters sends what wave lengths of light? Red and Infrared
What are the two principles of Pulse Oximetry? Spectrophotometry-light absorption to quantify HbO2 & Photoplethysmography-light transmission to differentiate flow to determine pulse
What is the flow factor of 80/20 heliox? 1.8
What is the flow factor of 70/30 heliox? 1.6
Infrared is absorbed by what? Oxy Hb
Red light is absorbed by what? Deoxy Hb
Low R:IR means a high what? SpO2 98%
High R:IR means a low what? SpO2 60%
HbCO read what with a pulse ox? False high SpO2
What 4 reasons could read a false high on a pulse oximeter? 1. HbCO 2. Nail Polish 3. Fluorescent light 4. Dark skin
The IS device provides negative or positive plural and alveolar pressure? Negative
The IPPB device provides negative or positive plural and alveolar pressure? Positive
The PEP device provides negative or positive plural and alveolar pressure? Positive
Cardiovascular effects of IS, PEP, and IPPB devices? 1. Decrease venous return 2. Decrease Cardiac Output 3. Increase PVR 4. Increase Intracranial Pressure
What is an Oscillation Device? Rapid air vibration transmitted to the lungs in order to enhance the mobilization of secretions.
Oscillatory generator delivers oscillations from how many hertz? 5-25
1 hertz equals how many cycles per min? 1 Hz=60 cycles/min
Calculation for minimum Vt (Tidal Volume) If patient is 80kg? 80 x 50 = 4000/3=1333ml
What relationship is Temperature as an evaporation factor? Direct
What relationship is Atmospheric Pressure as an evaporation factor? Inverse
What relationship is Surface Area as an evaporation factor? Direct
Define Absolute Humidity Weight of water in a gas sample. Referred to as content.
Define Maximum Absolute Humidity A fully SATURATED gas sample. Referred to as capacity.
How to calculate Relative Humidity? Content/Capacity x 100 or Absolute/Max. Absolute x 100
What are the normal values for Room Temperature regarding humidity? @25 degrees C the Max. Absolute Humidity is 23mg/L
What are the normal values for Body Temperature regarding humidity? @37 degrees C the Max. Absolute Humidity is 44mg/L
What are the 5 steps of inadequate humidity? 1. Impaired Ciliary Activity 2. Impaired Mucus Flow 3. Retained Secretions 4. Infection 5. Pneumonia
3 goals of Aerosol devices? 1. Humidify Inspired Gas 2. Deliver Medications 3. Improve Bronchial Hygiene
3 hazards of Aerosol devices? 1. Bronchospasm (asthmatics most sensitive) 2. Fluid overload (infants at risk) 3. Cross contamination
With ANSI standards what is the minimum of Absolute Humidity to avoid damage to the upper airway? 10mg/L
With ANSI standards what is the minimum Absolute Humidity with patients on a bypass in upper airways? 30mg/L
Explain a Heat Moisture Exchanger? Captures the patients exhaled gas and uses it to warm and humidify the next inspiration. No water reservoir
What are the two nebulizer categories? Pneumatic and Electric
What are the 5 Pneumatic Neb devices? Jet/SVN/LVN/MDI/DPI
What are the 2 Electric Neb devices? Ultrasonic/Mesh
SPAG is used to deliver what? Ribavirin
What is the heart nebulizer used for? Continuous Bronchodilator Therapy
What 5 Mediator Antagonists are Maintenance Drugs and used to treat Asthma? 1. Intal 2. Tilade 3. Accolate 4. Zyflo 5. Singulaire
What are the two types of Adrenergics? Non-catecholamines & Catecholamines
What are the 4 short duration <8hr Non-Catecholamines? 1. Alupent 2. Maxair 3. Ventolin/Proventil 4. Xopemex
What are the 3 long duration 12hr Non-Catecholamines? 1. Formoterol 2. Salmeterol 3. Arformoterol Tartrate
What are the two anticholinergic medications? Atrovent & Spiriva
What is the onset of Anticholinergics? <5min
What is the duration of Anticholinergics? 4-24hrs
What are the 8 steroids used to treat asthma and are maintenance drugs? 1. Pulmicort 2. Alvesco 3. Asmanex 4. Azmacort 5. Flovent 6. Aerobid 7. Beclovent 8. Deltasone
What are the 3 combination medications? 1. Advair 2. Combivent 3. Symbicort
What is a Proteolytic Agent? A clone of pancreatic Dnase enzyme which digests DNA in purulent secretions. Common in treating Cystic Fibrosis
What is the medication used as a Proteolytic Agent? Dornase Alpha (Pulmozyme)
What are the side effects of Proteolytics? Pharyngitis/Laryngitis/Conjunctivitis
Pasteurization is what level of disinfectant? Intermediate Level
What is the most widely used High-Level chemical disinfectant? Glutaraldehyde
What are the two indicators to Autoclaving? Thermal: Temp and exposure Biological: Sterilization
ETO or Ethylene Oxide is god for what? Heat-Sensitive equipment
What are the indicators of ETO Ethylene Oxide? Chemical: ETO exposure Biological: Sterilization
Acetic acid is what level disinfectant and what is used for? Low-level and is for home use.
Critical equipment is considered what? Anything that goes inside the body
Semi-Critical equipment is what? Anything that touches a membrane surface
Noncritical equipment is what? Anything that stays out of the body and touches skin only
Created by: Langhout1418
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