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Bio Lab Final ?s

How is displacement calculated? Calculate the difference between the initial and final volume measurement
How do you measure the volume of a rock? Displacement
True or False: The metric system is universal True
Area is ___ dimensional 2
Volume is ___ dimensional 3
The meniscus is __________________ curve in the surface of a liquid
How do you calculate Celsius to Fahrenheit? multiply by 1.8 (or 9/5) and add 32
How do you calculate Fahrenheit to Celsius? subtract 32 and multiply by .5556 (or 5/9)
What is the control variable? The experimental element which is constant and unchanged throughout the course of the investigation
What is the independent variable? a variable that is manipulated to determine the value of a dependent variable
What is the dependent variable? The variable that is being measured in an experiment
The "X" axis is which variable? The independent variable
The "Y" axis is which variable? The dependent variable
What and where are the "ocular lens"? The "seeing" lens; top piece of the microscope
What is the magnification of the ocular lens? 10x magnification
What does the nosepiece do? Holds the objective lens
True or false: the nosepiece rotates True
True or false: the nosepiece does NOT stop for each lens False
The scanning objective is the _____ - colored band lens with the _____est magnification out of all the lenses Red; low
What is the magnification of the scanning objective lens? 4x
What is the TOTAL magnification of the scanning objective lens? 4x objective x 10x ocular = 40x magnification
Which adjustment knob do you use to focus the SCANNING OBJECTIVE? The coarse adjustment
The LOW - POWER objective is the _____ - colored band lens with the ________ magnification out of all the lenses Yellow; medium
What is the magnification of the LOW - POWER OBJECTIVE LENS? 10x
What is the TOTAL magnification of the scanning LOW - POWER objective lens? 10x low power x 10x ocular = 100x magnification
Which adjustment knob do you use to focus the LOW - POWER OBJECTIVE? The fine adjustment
The HIGH - POWER objective is the _____ - colored band lens with the ________ magnification out of all the lenses Blue; highest
What is the magnification of the HIGH - POWER OBJECTIVE LENS? 40x
What is the TOTAL magnification of the scanning HIGH - POWER objective lens? 40x high power x 10x ocular = 400x magnification
Which adjustment knob do you use to focus the HIGH - POWER OBJECTIVE? The fine adjustment
What is the STAGE? The platform on which slides are mounted for viewing
Which knob is the COARSE adjustment knob? The largest outer-most knob
Which knob is the FINE adjustment knob? The smaller knob
____ turns of fine focus knob = one notch turn of the coarse focus knob 10
What is the purpose of the IRIS DIAPHRAGM? Controls the amount of light entering the specimen
What is the purpose of the CONDENSER? The condenser has a knob that moves the entire unit up and down under the stage
True or false: Elodea is an aquatic plant True
Human cheek cells are what type of cells? Epithelial cells
You read the meniscus at ____ level eye
What is the function of the NUCLEUS? contains the majority of the cell's genetic material
The NUCLEUS is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Both
What is the function of the CYTOPLASM? It is responsible for giving a cell its shape, to fill out the cell, and keeps organelles in their place. Without cytoplasm, the cell would be deflated and materials would not be able to pass easily from one organelle to another.
The CYTOPLASM is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Both
What is the function of the PLASMA MEMBRANE? To protect the cell from its surroundings, is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and regulates the movement of substances in and out of cells
The PLASMA MEMBRANE is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Animal cells
What is the function of the MITOCHONDRIA? to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism
The MITOCHONDRIA is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Both
What is the function of the CHLOROPLAST? Site of photosynthesis
The CHLOROPLAST is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Plant cells
What is the function of the CELL WALL? maintains the shape of plant cells, supports and strengthens plants, resists water pressure
The CELL WALL is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Plant cells
What is the function of the CENTRAL VACUOLE? To hold materials and wastes and to maintain the proper pressure within the plant cells to provide structure and support for the growing plant
The CENTRAL VACUOLE is found in animal cells, plant cells or both? Plant cells
What is the linear equation for the Bradford Assay Standard Curve? y=mx+b
What does "Y" equal for the Bradford Assay Standard Curve? Y = Absorbance
What does "M" equal for the Bradford Assay Standard Curve? M = Slope
What does "X" equal for the Bradford Assay Standard Curve? X = Concentration
What does "B" equal for the Bradford Assay Standard Curve? B = y - intercepts
The Bradford Assay Standard Curve establishes a relationship between the _________________ and its _______________ concentration of a substance; absorbance
The Bradford Assay Standard Curve can be used to find concentration of the ______________ unknown
What is osmosis? The movement of water across semi-permeable membranes
What is a HYPERTONIC solution? A solution that has a GREATER concentration of solutes on the OUTSIDE of a cell when compared with the inside of a cell
Will a hypertonic cell shrink or swell up? Shrink
What is a HYPOTONIC solution? A solution that has a GREATER concentration of solutes on the INSIDE of a cell when compared with the outside of a cell
Will a hypotonic cell shrink or swell up? Swell up
How do you measure the rate of osmosis? Through dialysis tubing
What is plasmolysis? The process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution
What is hemolysis? the rupture or destruction of red blood cells
How does an INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE affect enzyme activity? Increase kinetic energy and collisions; too high will denature the enzyme
How does a DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE affect enzyme activity? Decrease kinetic energy and collisions; too low will deactivate the enzyme
How does a CHANGE IN PH affect enzyme activity? disrupts an enzyme's shape and structure or DENATURES
How does a CHANGE IN SUBSTRATE & ENZYME CONCENTRATION affect enzyme activity? Initially will have a faster reaction,will reach a saturation point
What are REDOX reactions? Reactions which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another
What is another name for REDOX reactions? Reduction-oxidation reactions
Oxidation is ____ of elections loss
Reduction is ____ of electrons gain
What are the goals of REDOX reactions? To produce ATP
What is the first step in cellular respiration? Glycolysis
What is the second step in cellular respiration? Acetyl-CoA
What is the third step in cellular respiration? Citric Acid Cycle
What is the fourth step in cellular respiration? ETC
What is the overall equation for CELLULAR RESPIRATION? C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 + 29 ADP + 29 Pi ---> 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + 29 ATP
What is the overall equation for GLYCOLYSIS? C6H12O6 + 2 ATP ---> 2 C3H3O3 + 2 NADH + 4 ATP (2 Net ATP)
What is the overall equation for Acetyl-CoA? C3H3O3 + NAD+ + coenzyme A ---> C2H3O–CoA + NADH + CO2
What is the overall equation for the Citric Acid Cycle? C2H3O–CoA + 3NAD+ + FAD + ADP + Pi + 2 H2O 3NADH + FADH2 + ATP + 2CO2
What is the overall equation for the Electron Transport Chain? 10 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 25 ADP + 25 Pi + 6 O2 + 24 H+ ---> 10 NAD+ + 2 FAD + 25 ATP + 12 H2O
What is CHEMIOSMOSIS? the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient
What is a terminal electron acceptor? a compound that receives or accepts an electron during cellular respiration or photosynthesis
What is the proton-motive force? generated by ETC which acts as a proton pump, using the energy of electrons from an electron carrier to pump protons (hydrogen ions) out across the membrane, separating the charge across the membrane.
What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? Sunlight + CO2 + H2O → C6H1206 + O2
What are the 4 photo-pigments involved in photosynthesis? Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Xanthophylls, and Carotenes
What is PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY? The method of separating components of mixture that involves passing the mixture from a mobile phase to a stationary phase
MorePOLAR photopigments are _________ to polar paper and remain near the ______ Attracted; bottom
What is Rf (retention factor) value? the relative amount of time that a particular substance spends in the mobile phase and the
What is the Rf value formula? The distance traveled by the compound divided by the distance traveled by the solvent
Created by: searl97

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