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chapter 3

atom the smallest basic unit of matter
element one particular type of atom that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
compound a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio
ion an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ionic bond a chemical bond between atoms formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
hydrogen bond an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom (often oxygen or nitrogen)
cohesion the attraction among molecules of the same substance
adhesion the attraction among molecules of different substances
solution a mixture of substances that is the same throughout (homogeneous mixture)
solvent the substance that dissolves another substance; the substance that is present in the greater amount in a solution
solute a substance that is dissolved; present in a smaller amount in a solution
acid a compound that releases a proton (hydrogen ion) when is dissolves in water; has a pH lower than 7
base a compound that removes hydrogen ions from a solution; has a pH higher than 7
pH the measurement of a concentration's acidity
monomer a single subunit in a complete molecule
polymer a large molecule (or macromolecule) made of many monomers bonded together
carbohydrate - sugars and starches
- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
- Monomer =monosaccharide
- quick energy; some storage
- 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen; one sugar - monosaccharide; two sugars - disaccharide; many sugars - polysaccharide
- test: benedict's reagent
lipid Name: fats, oil, waxes
Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Monomer: glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Functions: storage, energy reserves, cell membranes
Other Facts: insoluble in water, shaped life an elongated E
Test: paper bag test
fatty acids chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
protein Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Monomer: amino acid
Functions: basic building blocks or living material; hair, muscles, fingernails; enzymes (speed up chemical reactions); transport in cell
amino acids molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acids polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides
chemical reaction a reaction that changes substances into other substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
reactant the substance changed during a chemical reaction
product the substance made by a chemical reaction
bond energy the amount of energy that will break a bond between two atoms
equilibrium the state that is reached when bother the reactants and products are made at the same rate
activation energy the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
exothermic the type of chemical reaction that releases more energy than is absorbs
endothermic the type of chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases
catalyst a substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction and also increases the rate of the chemical reaction
enzyme the catalyst for chemical reactions in living things
substrate the specific reactant that an enzyme acts on
inorganic compounds compounds that are not made by living things
organic compounds carbon compounds made by living things; form covalent bonds
macromolecules built by linking a set of building blocks (monomers) together into long chains (a polymer)
monomers basic units that repeat over and over in organic compounds
polymers made up of many, many molecules all strung together to form really long chains (and sometimes more complicated structures)
Created by: WillReese2



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