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Chapter 9

Genetics

TermDefinition
heredity the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
trait a genetically determined variant of a characteristic
pollination when male reproductive parts of a flower (anthers) are transferred to the female reproductive part
self-pollination when pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of either that flower or another flower on the same plant
cross pollination when plants reproduce between other plants
true breeding when a trait always produces offspring that have the same trait when they self-pollinate
p generation the breeding of the parents
F1 generation the breeding of the offspring of the p generation
f2 generation the breeding of the offspring of the f1 generation
dominant a factor that dominates the other trait in a pair
recessive a factor that is not dominate and is dominated by the other trait in the pair
law of segregation a pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes
law of independent assortment factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes
molecular genetics the study of the structure and formation of chromosomes and genes
allele two or more alternative forms of a gene
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype an organisms appearance
homozygous when both pairs of alleles are alike
heterozygous when the two alleles in the pair are different
probability the likeliness that an event will occur
monohybrid cross when a cross in only one characteristic is tracked
punnet square a diagram that helps scientists predict the distribution of the outcomes of genetic traits
genotypic ratio the ratio of genotypes that will appear in an offspring
phenotypic ratio the ratio of the offsprings phenotypes
testcross where an individual unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive gene
complete dominance a relationship where one allele is dominant over another
incomplete dominance a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents cause the dominant allele is unable to express itself
codominance when both alleles are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
dihybrid cross a cross where two characteristics are tracked
Created by: elizrhys