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chapter 9

genetics the science of heredity, dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment.
heredity the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring
trait a distinguishing characteristic or quality, especially of one's personal nature
pollination transfer of pollen from the anther to the sigma
self-pollination the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower, another flower on the same plant, or the flower of a plant of the same clone.
cross-pollination the transfer of pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of a plant having a different genetic constitution.
true-breeding parents will also pass down a specific phenotypic trait to their offspring
P generation the first set of parents crossed in which their genotype is the basis for predicting the genotype of their offspring
F1 generation the F1 generation is the generation resulting immediately from a cross of the first set of parents (parental generation).
F2 generation the second filial generation, which is comprised of offspring(s) resulting from a cross of the members of F1 generation.
dominant expressed or seen when a heterozygous genotype is present.
recessive one in which the effect is not tangible, or is masked by the effects of the dominant gene.
law of segregation originated by Gregor Mendel, stating that during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent expand.
law of independent assortment the principle, originated by Gregor Mendel, stating that when two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together.
molecular genetics of, relating to, or consisting of molecules.
allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Created by: katherinewu