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Module 18.2 Sensory


Focus on Diversity and Culture table. What populations are the most affected by glaucoma and cataracts? Pg.1307 African Americans are more affected than Caucasians & Hispanics.
What are the four types of cataracts that can occur independent of the aging process? Pg.1307 Secondary cataracts, Traumatic cataracts, Radiation cataracts, & congenital cataracts
What can cause Secondary cataracts? Pg.1307 can form after surgery to treat another eye disorder (glaucoma or effect of medication)
What can cause Traumatic cataracts? Pg.1307 may result from an injury to the eye
What can cause Radiation cataracts? Pg.1307 may result from long term exposure to radiation
What can cause Congenital cataracts? Pg.1307 may appear in a child at birth or in childhood, usually both eyes
What is the greatest single risk factor for cataracts? Pg.1307 Age
What are some additional risk factors for cataracts? Pg.1307 Genetics (link unclear), Environmental, Life-style, Long-term exposure to sun (UVB rays), Cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol usage, diabetes mellitus, eye trauma, exposure to heat, radiation, medications
What medications put a client at risk for cataract development? Pg.1307 systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, lovastatin, phenytoin, chlorpromazine, busulfan
Table. Clinical Manifestations and therapies. What is the Etiology of congenital cataracts? Pg.1307 rare, Usually unknown cause, May occur with other birth defects: Congenital rubella, Trisomy 21(Down syndrome), Pierre Robin Syndrome, Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome)
Table. Clinical Manifestations and therapies. What are the clinical manifestations of congenital cataracts? Pg.1307 May be different from age-onset cataracts, Grey & white cloudy pupils, May have nystagmus, may not have "red eye" glow in photos
Table. Clinical Manifestations and therapies. What are the clinical therapies of congenital cataracts? Pg.1307 Dx confirmed by Ophthalmologist, Tx depends on severity, If mild without affecting vision condition maybe monitored, mod-severe and affects vision surgical removal is recommended, In most cases Intraocular lens implanted
Table. Clinical Manifestations and therapies. What is the Etiology of age-related cataracts? Pg.1307 Aging causes proteins in the lens to deteriorate & become cloudy, By 75 most people will have cataracts that affects vision, Factors that speed up process: Diabetes, UVA/UVB exposure, smoking, family hx
Table. Clinical Manifestations and therapies. What are the clinical manifestations of age-related cataracts? Pg.1307 Cloudy/opaque lens, May cause cloudy vision, halos, diplopia, or photophobia
Table. Clinical Manifestations and therapies. What are the clinical therapies of age-related cataracts? Pg.1307 Early cataracts or those with minimal effect on vision require no surgical intervention, Encourage UVA/UVB protection, Utilize safety measures, Surgery only if ADL's are impacted
How is a cataract diagnosis made? Pg.1307 Diagnosis made based on history and eye examination
What are some No pharmacologic therapies for cataracts? Pg.1309 Early cataracts can be managed with magnifying glasses, stronger prescription lenses, brighter lighting, or antiglare sunglasses. No medications available for cataracts
What are some Complementary and alternative therapies for cataracts? Pg.1309 Insufficient data exists to support the treatment of cataracts with alternative therapies, Some CAM practitioners believe antioxidants improve cataracts because they reduce the amount of free radicals that can cause damage to the eyes
When doing a physical examination on a client suspected of cataracts what type of presence may a nurse visualize on the pupil? Pg.1309 Presence of red reflex, cloudy gray or white pupil
What nursing diagnosis would be most appropriate for a client with cataracts? Pg.1309 - Risk for injury related to visual impairment - Decisional conflict: Cataract removal - Risk for ineffective health maintenance
When the nurse is planning for a client with cataracts what are some appropriate outcomes? Pg.1309 Remain free from injury, Be able to articulate understanding of surgery, Participate in self-care activities to protect eyes from further damage, Follow self-care instructions following surgery to ensure healing
When a client is diagnosed with cataracts what should the RN teach about injury prevention? Pg.1309 Wear sunglasses with UVA/UVB protection when outdoors, Use reading or prescription glasses or contact lenses as necessary, Maximize lighting for reading, cooking, & other indoor activities, Limit or discontinue nighttime driving
What things should a client be aware of after cataract surgery? Pg.1309 May experience mild-mod discomfort, some fluid discharge, symptoms normally subside in 1-2 days but call if they persist, wear eye protection, avoid rubbing eyes, 7-8weeks for full recovery
How does a nurse facilitate informed decision making? Pg.1309-1310 - Explain nonemergent nature of condition - Help client determine effect on daily life - Attend to verbalized concerns
What are some Limitations post-operatively? Pg.1310 Limitations-avoid reading, lifting, bending to pick up objects, strenuous activity, & sleeping on operative side
How can a nurse encourage wellness for cataract patients? Pg.1310 Ophthalmologist at least every 2 yrs for clients with diabetes, history of visual problems, or use of corticosteroids, - Smoking cessation, - Appropriate eye protection with tools/sun - Eye, vision assessment at each visit for 65yrs+
When evaluating a client with cataracts what indicates the nurse that the treatment was successful? Pg.1310 - Remain free from injury - Make informed decision regarding cataract surgery - Verbalize concern about home care and activities - Demonstrate correct med administration
Created by: Studying_Nurse