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Module 18.4 Sensory

Glaucoma

QuestionAnswer
Medications: Glaucoma. What are some examples of Beta-Adrenergic Blockers? Pg.1322 Timolol, Levobunolol, Carteolol, Metipranolol
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the mechanisms of action for Beta-Adrenergic Blockers? Pg.1322 Decreases the production of aqeous humor in the eye, causing decreased intraocular pressure
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the Nursing considerations for Beta-Adrenergic Blockers? Pg.1322 1.Systemic absorption may occur: hypotension, bradycardia, SOB 2.Assess for contraindications: asthma, COPD, heart block, heart failure 3.Teach client to close eye & occlude lacrimal duct to avoid systemic effect
Medications: Glaucoma. What are some examples of Prostaglandin Analogs? Pg.1322 Latanoprost, Bimatroprost, Travoprost
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the mechanisms of action for Prostaglandin Analogs? Pg.1322 Increases drainage of aqous humor through the uveoscleral pathway. Reduces intraocular pressure by 30%
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the Nursing considerations for Prostaglandin Analogs? Pg.1322 1.Client may have change in iris color 2. Blurred vision, eye pain, eye redness may occur
Medications: Glaucoma. What are some examples of Alpha2-Adrenergic Agonists? Pg.1322 Brimonidine tartate, Apraclonidine
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the mechanisms of action for Alpha2-Adrenergic Agonists? Pg.1322 Decreases production of aqueous humor in the eye & increases drainage through the uveoscleral pathway
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the Nursing considerations for Alpha2-Adrenergic Agonists? Pg.1322 1. Assess for contraindications: Acute angle-closure glaucoma, HTN, CAD, & dysrhythmias 2.Assess for CNS side effects: Anxiety, nervousness, muscle tremors 3.Allergic reaction: eye& eyelid erythema
Medications: Glaucoma. What are some examples of Carbonic Anhydrase Agonist? Pg.1322 Acetazolamide & Methazolamide (oral only) Brinzolamide &Dorzolamide
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the mechanisms of action for Carbonic Anhydrase Agonist? Pg.1322 Decrease the production of aqueous humor into the eye. Related to sulfa drugs.
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the Nursing considerations for Carbonic Anhydrase Agonist? Pg.1322 1.Oralmeds may cause periorbital numbness& tingling in fingers& toes 2.May cause loss of potassium; Access daily wgt & electrolytes
Medications: Glaucoma. What are some examples of Combination Medications? Pg.1322 Cosopt (Beta-blocker plus carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) Combigan (beta-blocker with alpha2-adrenergic agonist)
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the mechanisms of action for Combination Medications? Pg.1322 mechanism of action depends on the medication combination
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the Nursing considerations for Combination Medications? Pg.1322 1. Same med implications of individual meds 2. May be beneficial to clients to have one medication & may reduce cost
Medications: Glaucoma. What are some examples of Miotics (Parasympathomimetics)? Pg.1322 Pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine, Pilopine, Pilostat) Carbachol
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the mechanisms of action for Miotics (Parasympathomimetics)? Pg.1322 Increases drainage of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork via pupillary constriction
Medications: Glaucoma. What are the Nursing considerations forMiotics (Parasympathomimetics)? Pg.1322 1.Rarely used due to side effects 2. May help with narrow-angle glaucoma 3.Myopic clients have increased risk for retinal detachment 4.Assess: HA, eye pain, & dim vision in low light
What is glaucoma? Pg.1318 condition characterized by optic neuropathy with gradual loss of peripheral vision, (usually) increased intraocular pressure of eye
What are the symptom(s) of glaucoma? Pg.1318 Client experiences gradual narrowing of visual field vision, happens so slowly it often goes unnoticed until late in disease process, painless, eventual blindness
What is normal intraocular pressure? Pg.1318 12-15mmHg (slide show said 12-22mmHg)
How is intraocular pressure maintained? Pg.1318 Maintained by a balance between the production of aqueous humor in the ciliary body, it flows through the pupil form the posterior to the anterior chamber of the eye, & outflow or absorption through trabecular network & canal of Sclemm
How is the balance in the intraocular pressure disrupted? Pg.1318 Decrease in outflow or absorption of aqueous humor usually results in an increase in pressure
What can occur when the intraocular pressure increases? Pg.1318 Injury to the optic nerve
What are the two major forms of primary glaucoma? Pg.1318 open-angle glaucoma & angle-closure glaucoma
What are the two categories of pediatric glaucoma? Pg.1318 primary & seconday
What is primary congenital glaucoma? Pg.1318 Occurs in 1 in every 10,000 in the US. Caused by an abnormal development in the ocular drainage system.
What are some of the major causes for Secondary glaucoma in adults? pg.1319 long-term steroid use or eye injury
In what populations is open-angle glaucoma found and what might contribute to its formation? Pg.1319 Population: Latinos & African Americans Contribution: Cardiovascular disease & Diabetes
What causes the gradual vision loss in open-angle glaucoma? Pg.1319 Neuronal ischemia and optic nerve degeneration lead to gradual vision loss
In what populations is angle-closure glaucoma found in? Pg.1319 Inuits, indigenous people, Asians
What are some intermittent symptoms of angle-closure glaucoma? Pg.1319 Intermittent pain & photophobia (sensitivity to light)
What medications should someone diagnosed with angle-closure glaucoma? Pg.1319 Atropine & other anticholinergics
What is mydrasis? Pg.1319 dilation of the pupil
What is the leading cause of blindness in the world? Pg.1319 Glaucoma
What are the primarily identified risk factors for glaucoma? Pg.1319 Age & race
What medications from the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor class would you administer as eyedrops? Pg.1322 Dorzolamide & Brinzolamide should be administered as eye drops
What medications from the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor class can you administer orally, IM, or IV? Pg.1322 Acetazolamide
What are the conditions in which contraindicate a prescription for beta blockers? Pg.1322 heart failure or reactive airway disease
If beta blockers are contraindicated what is the next medication to be recommended? Pg.1322 Dorzolamide, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor or Acetazolamide, systemic carbonic inhibitor
When would a diuretic be used in angle-closure glaucoma? Pg.1322 surgical intervention, Helps achieve rapid decrease in intraocular pressure prior to proceedure
Created by: Studying_Nurse