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Cell Respiration

Exam 4 Study Guide

What is "cell respiration"? a series of chemical reactions in cells that breaks down nutrients and converts the potential energy stored in covalent bonds into chemical potential energy stored in ATP
What is the function of ATP? stores energy in the covalent bonds that link phosphate groups
What are ATP and ADP? ATP=energy currency of cell ADP=converted ATP during cell metabolism
What do ATP and ADP stand for? ATP=Adenosine Triphosphate ADP= Adenosine Diphosphate
How are ATP and ADP different? ATP has 3 phosphates and ADP only has 2 because the 3rd one was broken
Which has more potential energy, ATP or ADP? ATP
How is ATP used by a cell? to power all cellular activities such as movement of cells and muscles
What molecules are needed to generate ATP? sugar(ribose), adenine, and phosphate
Where does energy come from to make ATP? from the food we eat and a phosphate
What is "glycolysis? an anaerobic process (doesn't use O2) in the cytoplasm (breaks down glucose)
What are the products of glycolysis? 2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 molecules of NADH, and 2 ATP molecules
How much ATP is produced by glycolysis? 2
What happens to the products of glycolysis if O2 is available? its followed by 2 processes in the mitochondria: The Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
What is "aerobic cellular respiration"? requires O2 to create ATP
What is "aerobic cellular respiration" function? to break down pyruvate, strip its covalent bonds, oxygen picks up low energy electrons (sometime comes out as hydrogen peroxide instead of H2O)
What organelle in the eukaryotic cell performs aerobic cellular respiration? Mitochondrion (looks like a jelly bean)
What does "aerobic" mean? requiring air or oxygen
What is the chemical formula that summarizes aerobic cellular respiration? C6H12O6(glucose) + 6O2(oxygen) + 36 ADP's(ADP+P) -> 6CO2(carbon dioxide) + 6H2O(water) + 36 ATP's
What are the reactants in aerobic cellular respiration? oxygen gas and glucose
What are the products of aerobic aerobic cellular respiration? CO2, H2O, and ATP molecules (energy)
How much ATP is produced by aerobic cellular respiration? 36-38
Which has more potential energy- glucose or ATP? Why? Glucose because its a larger molecule that has many high energy bonds which store energy.
What product of cellular respiration does oxygen produce when it picks up electrons and H+ ions? water (H2O)
What are oxygen free-radicals? oxygen ions with 1 or 2 extra electrons
What do oxygen free-radicals do to cells? very destructive and can cause damage to DNA and proteins
What do antioxidants do and what are some examples of antioxidants? can absorb electrons from oxygen free radicals, eliminating these free radicals and their potential for damage. Ex: beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, selenium, vitamin A,C & E.
What does "anaerobic" mean? requiring an absence of free oxygen
What is "lactic acid (lactate) fermentation"? is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate.
What product is produced by lactic acid fermentation? NAD+ (recycled) or NADH
What type of cells in your body perform lactic acid fermentation and why? skeletal muscle cells because oxygen levels are low during exercise
What is your body's response to exercise? increasing blood supply to muscles( deliver more oxygen) and increase the number of muscle cell's capacity to perform aerobic cellular respiration
What other organisms perform lactic acid fermentation? Bacteria
What kinds of foods are made from lactic acid fermentation? milk, sour cream, cheese, sauerkraut, yeast
What is "alcohol fermentation"? biological process that converts sugars into cellular energy producing ethanol and CO2 as a side effect.
What types of cells perform alcohol fermentation? yeast
How do we use those products in food and beverage preparation? CO2 creates bubbles in bread making it rise and
Created by: BrittBrat11