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Exam 4 Study Guide

Define "energy". the capacity of a physical system to do work
What is "potential energy"? energy stored in matter
What are some examples of gravitational and chemical forms of potential energy? Gravitational: boulder balanced on a cliff; an apple or acorn in a tree; stored energy due to water behind a dam. Chemical: fossil fuel and woods; nutrients; ATP
What is "kinetic energy"? energy contained in moving matter
What are some examples of kinetic energy? Kinetic: an apple falling from a tree; boulder rolling downhill; water rushing out of dam; a roller coaster or train rolling down track; flow of electrons in an electric current.
What are the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics? 1st law: amount of energy in the universe is constant. 2nd law: every energy transfer that takes place will increase entropy (disorder) of the universe and reduce amount of usable energy available to do work
How do these laws affect physical system and living organisms? cells must capture, store and use energy to maintain organization and not fall into death and chemical reaction isn't 100% because they produce metabolic heat as a by-product
What is "entropy" and how does an input of energy affect entropy? Entropy=randomness or disorder; it affects entropy because there is a loss of energy which increases entropy and no energy transfer is 100%
Are energy transfers 100% efficient? No
What is produced as a by-product of energy transfer? metabolic heat
Created by: BrittBrat11