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BIO127 Digest System

TermDefinition
Peritoneum The thin, shiny, serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and also folds back to cover most of the organs contained within the cavity
Mesentery The double-layered portion of the peritoneum that is somewhat fan-shaped, with the handle portion attached to the abdominal wall and the fan attached to the small intestine.
Cecum The first segment of the large intestine; a small pouch-like sac or cul de sac to which the vermiform appendix (aka appendix) is attached
Ascending Colon Second section of the large intestine
Transverse Colon Third section of the large intestine
Descending Colon Fourth section of the large intestine
Sigmoid Colon Last section of the large intestine. This section empties into the Rectum.
Rectum Rectum means straight; undigestible food empties into here, waiting for expulsion.
Anus Opening to the outside for defecation.
Amylase Enzyme manufactured by the salivary glands that initiates the digestion of carbohydrates. Amylase is ALSO produced by the Pancreas
Duodenum First segment of the small intestine. Receives food from the stomach after it passes through the pyloric sphincter. Most enzymes from accessory organs are added here and absorption begins.
Jejunum Second segment of the small intestine. Receives food from the duodenum. Absorption is the digestive process that occurs here.
Ileum 3rd segment of the small intestine; Most remaining nutrients absorbed here. Empties into the large intestine.
Pyloric Sphincter Sphincter at the distal end of the stomach; allows partially digested food (chyme) to exit the stomach and enter the duodenum
Gallbladder Muscular organ on the inferior surface of the liver that stores bile and releases it into the duodenum after meals to aid in the digestion of fats.
Cholelithiasis The term that describes the condition of having stones in the gallbladder.
Esophageal Sphincter Sphincter at the upper end of the stomach; allows food to end the stomach from the esophagus. Failure of this sphincter can lead to a hiatal hernia
Lipase Pancreatic enzyme that digests fats
Trypsin Pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins
Pepsin Protein digesting enzyme produced by the stomach in an inactive form called pepsinogen. Becomes active when it comes in contact with hydrocholoric acid
Hydrochloric Acid Strong acid that denatures proteins to prepare them for digestion and also destroys foreign organisms.
Pancreas Long gland extending from the duodenum to the spleen. Has both exocrine and endocrine functions. Exocrine functions aid in digestion
Common Bile Duct The duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the common cystic duct from the gallbladder
Sublingual glands Salivary glands located underneath the tongue
Leptin From the Greek word leptos,meaning thin, Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes. Leptin helps to regulate food intake and control fat storage. Your adipocytes tell you "Hey, lept-o-yo-self back from the table! You have plenty of fuel to burn here."
Grehlin Hormone released by an empty stomach between meals or an empty stomach that stimulates hunger. Grrrr-ehlin. "I'm hungry. Feed me."
Created by: Marlys