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Ferns & Algae

A deck of flashcards for Undergraduate Study of Biology.

Phylum Pterophyta The phyla Ferns are classified under.
Life cycles of most ferns Homosporous type where one type of spore is produced. They grow into bisexual gametophytes (producing both archegonia and antheridia).
Fern sporophyte Diploid
Fern sporangia produces haploid spores.
Sporophyte (In the life cycle of plants with alternating generations) the asexual and usually diploid phase, producing spores from which the gametophyte arises. It is the dominant form in vascular plants.
Sporangium (In ferns and lower plants) a receptacle in which asexual spores are formed.
Rhizome A continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and adventitious roots at intervals. It may also bear leaves (fronds)
Young fern fronds They have circinnate vernation; the manner in which a fern frond emerges. As the fern frond is formed, it is tightly curled so that the tender growing tip of the frond (and each subdivision of the frond) is protected within a coil.
Fronds variability Simple and undivided. Palmately divided. Pinnately divided.
Stipe Frond petiole
Rachis Midrib of a pinnately divided frond
Frond venation Vein arrangement. Most primitive type is open dischotomous (branching) venation and most advanced types are various reticulate (network) types.
2 types of sporangium in ferns Eusporangium and Leptosporangium.
Eusporangium Generally are fairly large, have multilayered wall, contains hundreds of spores and develops from a group of cells.
Leptosporangium Generally relatively small, has a single-layered wall, contains relatively few spores and develops from a single cell. It also has a multicellular stalk.
Sori Structures consisting of several sporangia.
Indusium A flap of tissue that protects each sorus which shrivels when the sporangia are ripe.
Annulus A band of cells with thickened inner tangential and radial walls.
Where does the sporangium dehisces to release the spores? At the stomium.
Planktonic algae Algae that floats in the water column (two dimensional area) which may be transported by water current.
Benthic algae Evolved a vertical plane. It produces a one dimensional filament, which could branch as a tree. Thallus portion of the algae which is attached at the ground with species cells.
Thallus A plant body that is not differentiated into stem and leaves and lacks true roots and a vascular system. Thalli are typical of algae, fungi, lichens, and some liverworts.
Caulerpa A genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae. They are unusual because they consist of only one cell with many nuclei, making them among the biggest single cells in the world.
Red algae Algae containing an accessory pigment called Phycobilins. It absorbs the green and blue-green light which penetrate on deep water. Hence, they are adapated to deep water.
Brown algae They contain an accessory pigment called Fucoxanthin which gives the algae the brown color.
Severe ecological problems from Planktonic algae Planktonic algae have a high proportion of surface to produce photosynthesis. Reproduction rate (division) is very high, particularly in warm temperature and with high nutrient concentration.
Benthic algae ecology Has a slower grow rate and a lower photosynthetic activity.
Created by: theecloud