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chapter 15

Axial Muscles

The body has more than how many muscles 600
How much of our body weight is skeletal 40% to 50%
What determines purposeful body movement The manner in which muscles are grouped, the relationship of muscles to joints, and how muscles attach to the skeleton
Connective Tissue Components 1)Endomysium 2) Perimysium 3)Epimysium
Epimysium can Fuse to become a tendon or aponeurosis
The Endomysium a delicate connective tissue membrane that covers skeletal muscle fibers (individual muscle fibers)
The Perimysium a tough connective tissue binding fascicles (envelopes bundles of muscle fiber)
The epimysium a coarse sheath covering the muscle as a whole
Parallel muscle shapes long with tendinous intersection/ Rectus abdominis, Sartorius (most typical shape)
Convergent muscle shape Pectoralis major (blades in a fan)
Pennate muscle shape Unipennate, Bipennate, Multipennate, Flexor pollicis longus, Rectus femoris and Deltoid (feather like)
Fusiform muscle shape Brachioradialis (parallel in the center or "belly" of the muscle but converge to a tendon at one end or both)
Spiral muscle shape Latissimus dorsi (twist between point of attachment)
circular muscle shape Orbicularis oris ( found around the mouth, eye and sphincters around the anus)
What is the Origin The point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts
What is the Insertion The point of attachment that moves when the muscle contracts
The Origin bone is The more stationary of the two bones at a joint when contractions occur
Muscles have multiple points of origins or insertions
Origins and insertion are points that may change under certain circumstances.
Muscle contraction move bones which serve as Levers, and by acting on joints, which serve as fulcrums for those levers
What movements are produced by the coordinated action of several muscles 1) Prime movers 2)Agonist 3)Antagonist 4)Synergists 5) Fixator muscle
A prime mover is A muscle that directly performs a specific movement
A Agonists is any mover muscles that directly perform a movement, including the prime mover
Antagonists are muscles that directly oppose prime movers when contracting; they relax while the prime mover is contracting to produce movement
Antagonists also provide precision and control durning contraction of prime movers
Synergist are muscles that contract at the same time as the PRIME MOVERS they facilitate prime mover actions to produce a efficient movement
Fixator muscles are joint stabilizers
The Posterior portion of the deltoid muscle tenses to stabilize the shoulder joint, thus acting as a what fixator muscles
A Lever system is composed of four parts, what are they 1) Ridget bar(bone) 2) Fulcrum (joint in which the rod moves) 3) Load ( moves) 4) Pull that produces movement /muscle contraction
In the Human body bones serve as levers, and joints serve as fulcrums
The third class levers is the most commonly used in the body
Flexing the forearm at the elbow joint is a commonly used example of a third-class lever
Muscles are named according to one or more of the following 1)Location, Function and type 2) Direction of fibers 3) Number of heads or divisions 4)Points of attachment/ Origin and insertion points 5) Relative size/ small medium or large
Created by: ktalbert1



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