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Food Science

Cakes and Cookies

Shortened Butter or conventional cakes leavened with baking powder or soda. Chocolate, pound, white, fruit, spice, yellow.
Unshortened Sponge or foam cakes leavened with beaten egg whites. Angel, sponge.
Chiffon Hybrid of shortened and unshortened and leavened with both baking powder or soda and beaten egg whites. Chocolate chiffon, lemon chiffon.
Cake Ingredients -Flour, sugar, fats, eggs, milk, leavening agent, salt
Function of flour in cake -It provides the structural framework; starch gelatinizes, gluten. Cake flour establishes a crumb structure in cakes. The flour’s starch gelatinizes, and its proteins form gluten to provide a structural network
Function of sugar in cake -Sweetener, increases volume, browns crust, increases shelf life.
Function of fats in cake -They add tenderness, volume, moistness, and flavor.
Function of eggs in cake -They strengthen structure; increase leavening; add emulsifiers; and add color and flavor
Function of milk in cake -It hydrates dry ingredients, dissolves sugar and salt, provides steam for leavening, and allows baking soda or powder to react.
Leavening agent's function in cake -These include baking soda, baking powder, and steam which is dependent on how much flour
Additional ingredients of cakes -Salt, vanilla, chocolate, spices, fruits, and nuts. Food additives.
Three rules for high ratio cakes -The sugar should weigh as much as or more than the flour. -Eggs should weigh as much as or more than fat. -The liquid ingredients should weigh as much as or more than sugar.
Flat frostings -They are uncooked flat or ornamental frostings and are the simplest to prepare. They are made by beating powdered sugar with water, milk or cream, and a flavoring. Most frequently used on coffee cakes and sweet rolls.
Decorating frostings They can also be called simple buttercream, royal, or ornamental frosting, and is traditionally used for decorating wedding cakes. It is similar to flat frosting, but beaten egg whites are added to give a firmer texture.
Cooked frostings made with granulated sugar that is dissolved in heated water; additional ingredients may include egg whites, cream of tartar, or corn syrup.primarily used as a filling and icing for pastries and cakes, and frequently to create rose or leaf decorations.
Swiss buttercream the easiest to prepare. Egg whites and sugar are mixed together over heat. After sugar melts, the egg whites are whipped into stiff peaks before adding the butter and flavorings.
Italian buttercream The lightest and sweetest. A hot sugar syrup is whipped into the already whipped egg whites.
French buttercream The rich, heavy consistency of this buttercream is obtained by whipping the hot sugar syrup into whipped egg yolks (or whole eggs).
Whipped cream frosting -It is used as a frosting or even a filling. This happens when cocoa or fruit purees are added to color and flavor the whipped cream.
Ganache -It is the French word for the rich, smooth, and shiny chocolate cream mixture used as both a frosting and filling for certain cakes and pastries.
Bar cookies -The most fluid of cookie batter and the batter is baked in a pan instead of a baking sheet. They include brownies, lemon bars, blondies.
Dropped cookies -This is literally dropped from a spoon or portion control scoop onto a baking sheet. The batter contains just enough flour so the cookie will not spread out like a pancake. They include chocolate chip, Florentines, fortune cookies,, meringues
Pressed cookies -The flour mixture of these cookies is viscous enough to be stuffed into a pastry bag or cookie press and forced out. Examples are ladyfingers, macarons, and Russian Tea cookies.
Molded cookies -The dough is heavy enough to be formed or molded into balls, vars, or other shpes before being placed on a baking sheet. These include, almond cookies, biscotti di prato, coricos, peanut butter.
Rolled cookies made from slightly heavier dough than molded cookies. The dough is rolled out on a lightly floured board and cut into desired shape. Examples include butter, cannoli shell, gingerbread, linzer cookies, Mandelbrot, sables, shortbread, and sugar.
Icebox cookies -These are the same kind of dough used for rolled cookies and can be formed into a cylinder, wrapped, and placed I the refrigerator to harden. The chilled dough is then sliced into thin discs for baking.
Cookies as functional foods -Some manufacturers have begun to add healthful ingredients in order to market cookies as a functional food. Examples are like granola and protein bars.
Created by: jaekmoore
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