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Food Science


Sucrose -Sucrose is the most familiar of the sugars. Sucrose, or table sugar, is a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose. It is derived from either sugar cane or sugar beets.
Forms of sucrose -Raw sugar, turbinado sugar, white sugar, powdered sugar, invert sugar, fruit sugar, Baker’s special, sanding sugar, liquid sugar, brown sugar, muscovado sugar
Refining and purifying steps of sucrose -Harvesting, including crushing, extraction, evaporation, and separation.
Glucose -Glucose, also known as dextrose, is the basic building block of most carbohydrates and the major sugar found in the blood.
Dextrose Usage -Food companies often use dextrose, which is less sweet than sucrose, in cake mixes, frostings, baked goods, custards, sherbets, candies, canned fruit, and beverages.
Function of dextrose in foods -Dextrose enhances color, texture, and crumb; as a component in dry mixes for baking; and to temper the sweetness of sucrose.
Fructose -Fructose, also called, “levulose”, or “fruit sugar”, is found naturally in fruits and honey and is the sweetest of all granulated sugars.
Hygroscopic -The ability to attract and retain moisture.
Fructose Usage -Fructose is primarily used for pharmaceutical products. It is also sometimes added to foods and beverages in the form of HFCS that is between 42% and 55% fructose.
Lactose -Lactose, a disaccharide, is the least sweet of all sugars and is extracted from whey for commercial use in baked products, were it aids in browning.
Maltose -Maltose, also called “malt sugar”, lends certain milk shakes and candies their characteristic malt taste.
Maltose Usage -It is used primarily as a flavoring and coloring agent in the manufacture of beer.
Syrups -Syrups are sugary solutions that vary widely in viscosity, carbohydrate concentration, flavor, and price.
Corn syrups -They are a by-product of cornstarch production, corn syrups are viscous liquids containing 75% sugars and 25% water.
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS-42) 42% fructose + 58% glucose
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS-55) 55% fructose + 45% glucose
Table sugar 50% fructose + 50% glucose
Corn syrup usage -Corn syrups, rather than granulated sugar, are often used in soft drinks and processed food to reduce manufacturing cost. They are primarily used as sweeteners, thickeners, and humectants (to retain freshness).
How is corn syrup made? -Corn syrup is made commercially by adding acid or enzymes to a mixture of cornstarch and water. The mixture is then boiled, filtered, and evaporated until the right sugar concentration is achieved.
High fructose corn syrups -They are syrups manufactured from cornstarch and are approximately 40% fructose and 50% glucose. Since fructose is sweet than sucrose, less HFCS is needed to achieve the desired sweetness, so it is pretty much cheaper than sucrose.
HFCS usage -There has been a widespread use for baby foods, bakery products, canned fruits, carbonated beverages, confections, dry bakery mixes, fountain syrups/toppings, frozen fruits, fruit juice preserves, meat products, pickles, condiments, and table syrups.
Why isn't HFCS considered natural? The FDA does not define the term natural, but it does have a policy that “natural” products do not contain any artificial or synthetic substance HFCS is altered in the manufacturing process, the FDA has stated that it does not qualify as natural.
Honey composition -consists primarily of sugars other than sucrose: fructose (40%), glucose (35%), sucrose (2%), and traces of other carbohydrates. Honey also contains maltose (1.5 to 4%), along with various other sugars present in less than 1% concentrations.
Crystallization -It is the precipitation of crystals from a solution into a solid, geometric network.
Storage of honey -Honey can remain shelved for years without spoiling. Stored for long periods of time, however, it can harden as its sugar precipitates into crystals.
Guidelines for substituting honey for sugar no more than half the granulated sugar should be replaced with honey. Use 1-part honey for 1 ¼ sugar. Reduce the liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup per cup of honey,. Add ½ teaspoon baking soda for every cup of honey to reduce the acidity and weight of honey.
Molasses thick, yellow to dark brown liquid by-product that results when the sugar cane or beets is repeatedly boiled during sucrose extraction., it must contain no more than 75% water and 5% mineral ash. Most of the sugar in molasses is sucrose.
Maple syrup flavors -The flavor and color develop during the boiling of the initially colorless sap. The syrup is graded and sold by color and ranges from light amber, or Fancy, to the darkest color, . The darker the color of the maple syrup, the more pronounced
Real vs. blended maple syrup -it takes about 40 gallons of sap to produce 1 gallon of maple syrup, most “maple syrup” sold today is blended with corn syrup and/or cane sugar syrup. , but real maple syrup has a unique flavor and smoothness not duplicated by substitutes. `
Maple sugar -Maple sugar is a product of maple syrup. It is made by further boiling the syrup until most of the water evaporates and the sugar crystalizes out of the syrup.
Invert sugar equal mixture of glucose & fructose created by hydrolyzing sucrose. Its ability to resist crystallization produces smooth, texture in candies. The strong hygroscopic nature of this sugar helps items stay moist over f time. It is sweeter than sucrose.
Sugar alcohols -Sugar alcohols are 40 to 100% as sweet as sucrose but are resistant to digestion by intestinal enzymes, so they contribute fewer kcalories and are digested and absorbed more slowly.
Types of sugar alcohols -Erythritol, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, polyglycitols (hydrogenate starch hydrolysates), sorbitol, xylitol
Sugar alcohol usage -Gums, jellies, jams, chocolate, hard-boiled candies, and ice cream.
Sugar alcohol advantages -They are cariostatic, or cavity preventing, they also function as humectants and emulsifiers, extending the shelf life of processed foods.
Humectant -It is a substance that attracts water to itself. If added to food, it increases the water-holding capacity of the food and helps to prevent it from drying out by lowering the water activity.
Problems with sugar alcohol -They are more slowly absorbed from the small intestine than other sugars, which can lead to diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gas.
Seven nonnutritive sweeteners -Saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, luo han guo fruit extract, stevia, and neotame
Why are nonnutritive sweeteners so popular? They contain no calories
Nonnutritive sweetener usage -Diet soft drinks, sugar-free gum, tabletop sweeteners, frozen desserts, pudding, gelatin, yogurt
Important functional characteristics of nonnutritive sweeteners -Bulking, binding, texturing, and fermenting.
Why is sugar in food? -Sweetness, solubility, crystallization, browning reactions and caramelization, moisture absorption (hygroscopicity), texture, fermentation, preservation, leavening, other uses
Sugar usage -The texture of foods is relied on sugars, fermentation, preservation, leavening, crust formation, coating, creaming, and surface products.
Created by: jaekmoore



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