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BIO127 Resp System

BIO127 EXAM 2

TermDefinition
Active Transport Uses transporters and ATP to move ions and nutrients across cell membranes
Acute Coryza The common cold, an upper respiratory infection.
Adam's Apple The Thyroid cartilage
Expiratory reserve volume The additional amount of air that can be breathed out by force after a normal exhalation
Tidal volume The amount of air moved into or out of the lungs in quiet, relaxed breathing
Residual volume The volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation
Inspiratory volume The additional amount that can be breathed in by force after a normal inhalation
Vital capacity The volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs by maximum exhalation after maximum inhalation
Functional residual capacity The amount of air remaining in the lungs after normal exhalation
Total lung capacity The total volume of air that can be contained in the lungs after maximum inhalation
Diffusion The movement of particles or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. The force that moves carbon dioxide out of the tissues and oxygen into the tissues. This force also moves oxygen from air to lungs.
Hyperpnea Refers to an increase in the depth and rate of breathing to meet the body's metabolic needs
Hypopnea A decrease in the rate and rhythm of breathing
Tachypnea An excessive rate of breathing
Apnea A temporary cessation of breathing.
Dyspnea A subjective feeling of difficult or labored breathing.
Orthopnea A breathing difficulty that is relieved by sitting straight up
Hypoxemia Deficiency of oxygen in the arterial blood
Hypoxia Lower than normal oxygen level in the tissues.
Hypocapnia Lower than normal levels of carbon dioxide in the blood brought on by hyperventilation. This shifts the blood pH to alkalosis
Hypoventilation An amount of air insufficient to meet the body's metabolic needs enters the alveoli. This increases the blood's concentration of carbon dioxide, creating acidosis
Pharynx The scientific name for the throat
Larynx The scientific name for the voice box
Trachea The scientific name for the windpipe
Epiglottis The flap of tissue that closes over the glottis (opening to the trachea) when food is swallowed
Nasopharynx The most superior portion of the pharynx; located behind the nose.
Oropharynx The middle portion of the pharynx; located posterior to the mouth
Laryngopharynx The most inferior portion of the pharynx; opens into the larynx on the anterior side and the esophagus on the posterior side.
Bronchi The two primary branches off the trachea carrying air into the lungs
Bronchioles The smallest airways that branch off the main bronchi in the lungs
Alveoli The functional unit of the lung; the site where external respiration occurs - oxygen moves from the air into the blood in the alveoli
Pleural Space The space between the layers of the membranes covering the lungs
Carbon Dioxide End product of cellular respiration. Nearly 100% dissolved in blood plasma, combined with protein portion of hemoglobin, or transported as bicarbonate. Goes back to the lungs where it is exhaled.
Carbon Monoxide Poisonous to the human body because it binds to the oxygen in our hemoglobin, causing suffocation
Respiratory Acid-Base Balance Carbon dioxide important in regulating. More carbon dioxide, more acidic; less carbon dioxide, more alkaline. Hypoventilation increases carbon dioxide or acid; Hyperventilation decreases carbon dioxide and makes for an alkaline condition.
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Diseases that are chronic (long term) in nature and cause destruction, blockage, dilation of the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Dyspnea is common. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are examples
Tuberculosis A bacterial infection that is spread by droplets, not by food or contact. Distinguished by formation of tubercles
Pneumothorax Air in the chest
Thoracentesis Procedure to puncture the chest, literally. This is a procedure by which fluid or air is removed from the pleural space or thoracic cavity.
Tracheotomy An incision in the trachea - usually to make a temporary or permanent airway.
Tracheostomy A surgically created opening into the trachea for purposes of breathing - may be temporary or permanent.
Pneumonia Infectious inflammation of the lungs in which air spaces become filled with fluid or EXUDATE. May be caused by either viruses or bacteria and may be located in lobes, alveoli (cystic), or bronchi.
Created by: Marlys