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A&P II Chapter 27 SG

Nutrition Study Guide

What are the four classes of macromolecules? Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids
List two monosaccharides: Glucose, fructose
What is the empirical formula of a monosaccharide? C6H12O6
Which disaccharide is a table sugar? Sucrose
Which two monosaccharides make up sucrose? Glucose and fructose
Which disaccharide is milk sugar? Lactose
Which two monosaccharides make up lactose? Glucose and galactose
List the three polysaccharides: Starch, cellulose, glycogen
What are the monomers of any protein? Amino acids
What is the difference between and essential amino acid and a non-essential amino acid? Essentials must be obtained from the diet. Non-essentials can be synthesized
What is the difference between and complete protein and incomplete protein? Complete supplies all essential amino acids. An incomplete is missing one or more
Are nucleic acids required in the diet? No
List two water-soluble vitamins All B-vitamins, Vitamin C
Which four vitamins are lipid soluble? ADEK
Which vitamin forms the pigment retinal in the retina of the eye? A
Which vitamin increases Ca reabsorption D
Which vitamin stabilizes cell membranes? E
Which vitamin serves in blood clotting? K
Which hormone requires iodine in its structure? Thyroid hormone
Where is Thyroid hormone produced? Thyroid gland
What is the difference between major minerals and trace minerals? Major needs >100mg/day, trace needs <100mg/day
Give an example of a major mineral Ca
What foods contain cholesterol? Animal-based
Can cholesterol be synthesized by the body? Yes
Cholesterol can be synthesized by what organ? Liver
Give one important function of cholesterol Precursor molecule for the formation of steroid hormones
About how long does the absorptive state last? 4h after a meal
What hormone is released with high BS? Insulin
Which hormone is released with Low BS? Glucagon
What is the functional unit of the liver? Lobules
List two major functions of the liver Formation of albumins, cholesterol synthesis
What does "glycolysis" literally mean? Destruction of glucose
What is the term for the amount of energy expended at rest? Basal metabolic rate