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A&P II Chapter 27

Nutrition

TermDefinition
Nutrient Chemicals obtained from food that are necessary for normal function of cells
Vitamin Organic molecule required for metabolism, yet are only available in small amounts in diet
Carbohydrates An organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Monosaccharide The simplest carbohydrate molecules
Disaccharide Carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides
Polysaccharides Class of carbs composed of three or more monosaccharide monomers
Lipid Group of organic molecules including triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and ecosanoids
Triglycerides Lipid providing long-term energy storage in adipose connective tissue; composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
Protein Organic molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids
Amino acid Organic molecule used to build protwins
Absorption Process of moving substances into blood or lymph
Glycolysis Stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is partially catabolyzed to form pyretic acid and ATP molecules
Citric Acid Cycle A cyclic metabolic pathway that occurs in the matrix of mitochondria during which energy in the bonds of acytl coA is transferred to form ATP, NADH, and FADH
Electron transport system Involves the transfer of hydrogen and an electron from the coenzymes NADH and FADH
Calorie The amount of energy required to raise the temp of 1 gallon of water by 1 degree C
Metabolic rate Amount of energy used in a given time period
Metabolism All chemical reactions taking place in the body, including both anabolic and catabolic reactions